RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY RELIABILITY Reliability is the consistency or repeatability of a measure For example, if I use the measurement twice (e.g. take a test twice) would my scores be the same? Reliability focuses on the consistency of the measurement. If a measurement is reliable you should get the same results if you repeat it. With any measurement the score you get is the observed score.
Greer and Marry Anne Dorland Castro, (1986) in a study examined the functional relationship between occupational stress and perceived unit effectiveness of Purchasing agents in a Southwestern U.S. city based on a self-report questionnaire, which solicited measures of stress and effectiveness and such information as respondents’ gender, age, number of subordinates, and position tenure and their organizations ' size and type of industry. A regression analysis of these responses which controlled for individual and organizational differences-found that perceived unit effectiveness was negatively related to occupational stress and positively related to age. The researchers found no evidence of an inverted-U-shaped relationship between stress and effectiveness, and little support for the proposition that gender moderates the
(2-tailed) .065 N 10 10 a. Treatment type = Calcium When running a Pearson Correlation Test, the results for the two tailed test reveal that there is no correlation between the Start measure and End measure for those given Calcium, as there is no significance indicator at the end of the table. B - Correlation check between the Start measure and End measure for those given placebo. Again, using a simple scatterplot diagram first, to check if there is a visual linear correlation between the starting and ending values for the Placebo, it would appear that there is an amount of correlation. As there is some visual evidence of this, the author proceeded to test the strength of the correlation, by utilising the Pearson Correlation Test.
severe burden, moderate burden and no burden) for each item and a standard question to assess the “Subjective” burden was also included in the schedule. This scale has been developed in Indian setup, keeping in mind the Socio economic and the cultural conditions in India. The validity and reliability of the scale have been found to be satisfactory. The interrelated consistency was more than 0.78 by the authors of the schedule, which clearly states that the scale is reliable. Validity of the scale was assessed by correlating objective burden rating with subjective burden, as reported by the relatives of the patient.
Besides, the standard psychometric tests are already well known and easily accessed. Applicants can practise taking them, and even be coached on them to get a better score. When candidates complete a recruitment questionnaire, their answers can be influenced by what is quaintly known as “motivational distortion”. Consciously or subconsciously they may recognise the types of behaviours that the organisation is looking for and their answers reflect that perception rather than their own personality. When this happens, the results of the questionnaire may be unreliable or even misleading.
The COSE has five subdomains (microskill, counseling process, dealing with difficult clients’ behavior, cultural competency and awareness of value) with 37 items and it is recommended for the score to be used as a total score rather than factor scores separately. The higher the score, the greater the counseling self-efficacy. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients reported for the COSE total score is .93 and the five subdomain is .88 for microskills, .87 for processing, .80 for dealing with difficult client behavior, .78 for cultural competency and .62 for awareness of value (Larson, et al., 1992). The participants were asked to rate on 6 points Likert scale on how they feel they will behave as a counselor in a counseling situation for each item. The scale ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree).
The study showed that majority (59 %) had good coping abilities and 41 % of nurses had average coping abilities. There was no impact of demographic variables of nurses on their stress or coping abilities. It revealed that there was no significant association between the level of stress and coping
(2006) identified an approach on how to assess counterproductive work behavior and discovered the five dimensions of CWB and claimed that it can be classified under Buss’s (1961) distinction between primarily active and passive behaviors. Under active forms of CWB includes some type of behavior like abuse, theft, sabotage, to name a few. Abuse was defined against others consist of both physical and verbal actions. While passive behavior includes the employees’ inaction in the situation such as production deviance, defined as intentional failure when completing tasks correctly, withdrawal behaviors, etc. Despite having dimensions of counterproductive work behaviors, in the present study it is important to incorporate all the dimensions in just one
Raymond Cattell is the psychologist who evloved assessment based on 16 personality factors. The test is referred to as the 16 PF Questionnaire and continues to be regularly used today, mainly in commercial enterprise for employee testing and choice, career counseling and marital counseling. The test consists of compelled-desire questions wherein the respondent need to pick out one of three different options. Personality traits are then represented by way of a selection and the people rating falls somewhere at the continuum between maximum and minimum extremes (Cherry, 2016). NEO Inventory is an objective test which measures the Big Five traits: extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism (Quizlet,