3.5 Characterization Technique Sample has been done using sputtering technique. Thus the sample need to be analyzed as shown in Figure 3.2. The structure of the sample was examined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) while optical band gap by the UV-vis Spectrophotometer. The thickness and growth rate were examined by using profilometer. 3.5.1 Profilometer Profilometer is instrument used for measure the thickness and Three Dimenson (3D) surface roughness on the thin films.
These specifications were chosen to work along with the particle’s heat absorption distribution. The next part of the experiment is to actually get the laser to trap the particle. The particles were placed in the beam by attaching them on a cylindrical curvet. On rotating this curvet, the particles were detached and fell. On falling, they were trapped by the beam, in the region were the intensity was minimum, i.e the doughnut’s hole.
To identify the characterization of surface Plasmon Polariton by the two media in which one of the act as convex and other act as a concave, when waves passes on the dielectric phase then as a convex while on the surface as concave, (Liaw and Wu, 2008). Recent century of the world going to research on the plasmonic circuit due to having extensive properties like optic and electronic circuit, because these circuit have surface Plasmon Polariton which is two dimensional spreading of waves one in to metal surface and other in the air, (Holmgaard and Bozhevolnyi,
These selectors allow only a specific desired monochromatic light to pass through and reach the detector. It consist of mainly 3 parts which is the entrance slit, exit slit and dispersion device. Dispersion devices cause a different wavelength of light to be dispersed at an angle monochromator used. There are a few types of dispersion devices mainly prism, filter and diffraction gratings. Prism is used to isolate different wavelength; Filter separate different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum by absorbing or reflecting certain wavelengths and transmitting other wavelengths; Diffraction gratings splits light into several beams and acts as a dispersive element depend on the wavelength of the
The refractive index of the RLHHB crystal was determined by Brewster's angle method. For this study, a He-Ne Laser of wavelength 632.8 nm was used as a source. The laser was made to fall on the crystal placed on a rotary stage. The transmitted light traveling through the crystal gets polarized when the crystal has zero reflection. The angle at which the crystal has zero reflection is called Brewster's angle or polarizing angle (θp).
We can to find the angles of incidence and refraction and use Snell’s Law to identify the index. Theory: Snell's law gives the relationship between angles of incidence and refraction for a wave impinging on an interface between two media with different indices of refraction. The law follows from the boundary condition that a wave be continuous across a boundary, which requires that the phase of the wave be constant on any given plane, resulting in n1sin θ1 = n2sin θ2, where and are the angles from the normal of the incident and refracted waves, respectively. Procedure: The light source is placed on a blank sheet of paper and turned the wheel to select a single ray. In front of the ray we place the trapezoid on the paper.
This causes the rays to refract away from the normal. This then causes the light rays angle of incidence to be smaller than the refraction in regards to the normal, Causing the rays to now be at a greater angle towards the reference line which means that all the light rays will intersect at a closer point. To find the Angle of refraction. Or the angle of incidence, or the refractive index of mediums. Refer to (Snell's
The Descartes formula can be used to find out the location and magnification of the image formed. The formula for this is 1/f=1/di+1/do and m= di/do= hi/ho. Some of the design faults of the refracting telescope are that it disperses white light and light is dimmed when it travels through glass. When white light rays pass through glass, the ray is refracted into a spectrum of colours (ROYGBIV). This happens in telescopes due to the different colours not being able to focus at the same point and is called chromatic aberration.
When the electrons strike the screen, the phosphor emits a visible light spot that can be seen on the screen. Since the quantity of deflection is directly related to the applied voltage, in fact the voltages VY and VX determine the coordinate’s axis of the bright visible spot created by an electron beam. 4. OSCILLOSCOPE MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUE Several types of oscilloscopes are manufactured around the globe. One such simple type is CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope).