In a similar study of sustainable rehabilitation option for smallholder farmers in Nigeria by Daramola, Fuwape, Ofuya, Okunlola, Ajibefun, Okuku, Oke, Aladesaiye, Badaru, and Olaiya (2003) observed that most cocoa farms in Nigeria are very old with low productivity. In addition, IITA (2006) bulletin reported that Cocoa production decline over the past several decades because of inadequate access to improved technologies, high costs of and limited access to inputs and credit, poor marketing, and a major shift in emphasis on agricultural policies. Thus, adequate supply of inputs such as improved seed and other productive assets, land inclusive and sustainable management practices and improved technologies are prerequisite for cocoa productivity to be increased and the restoration of the old glory of being the leading producer in West Africa is to be achieved. This may only be achived with adoption of best practices in the production value chain of this
Haiti, which was once the most lucrative agricultural colony of its time, is today ranked 145 out of 169 countries, according to the United Nations Human Development Index in 2010. In 2003, 80% of Haiti's population fell below the poverty line, a number that is likely to have increased since the earthquake in 2010. Their economy is based primarily in the agricultural sector, with the majority of production devoted to coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, and sorghum (CIA 2011). Though agriculture is a major part of the economy of Haiti, there is little governmental support for the agricultural sector. This has had a negative effect on Haitian food production because of the financial mandates imposed since the 1980's by the World Bank and
According to Parkin et al (2017:138), production subsidies are payments granted by the government to producers for each unit produced. As Chirwa and Forward (2013:9-13, Ch.6) states, input subsidies could increase farmers’ productivity which leads to more food availability with lower prices. Therefore, food insecurity would be reduced because of people’s improving purchasing capacity and more food access (Bloem et al, 2009:133). For example, after surviving from the worst harvest in ten years, the government of Malawi implemented a farm input subsidies program (FISP) in 2005, which led to a dramatic increase in maize production. Through the improving maize productivity, Malawi achieved a 53% surplus in 2007 compared with a 43% food deficit in 2005 (Denning et al, 2009:2).
Innovation for this study is seen as new adaptation measures to climate change by farmers. Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels, over time, and among the members of a social system (Rogers, 2003) Rogers (1995) indicated that diffusion is not a single, all-encompassing theory. It is several theoretical perspectives that transmit to the overall concept of diffusion; it is a meta-theory (Yates, 2001). He further indicated four essential factors that influence adoption of an innovation. These are the innovation itself, the communication channels used to spread the information about the innovation, time and the nature of the society to which the innovation is being introduced.
This is in consonance with the report of Philippine Statistics Authority (2017) that almost 10 percent of the 6 to 24 years old Filipinos are not attending school and did not even finish college. Furthermore, some of the reasons of students dropped out rate are attributed by insufficient family income, high cost, and lack of interest. Training Attended. It can be gleaned from the table 3 on page 38 that a great majority of farmers (76 or 70.37%) are attending 0 to two trainings in growing rice while only two of them are attending trainings for nine times and above. It means that training – workshops rendered to farmers were beneficial in acquiring new knowledge and informations essential in rice cultivation and production.
Taking local price inflation into account, the final shortage increases to 16% due to the degradation of purchasing capacity, especially among agro-pastoral populations. Although this further reduced food availability, it does not explain the magnitude of the crisis. Over the previous five years there were worse harvests than 2005s, but none had as significant an impact on food security or peoples nutritional status. Why was the 2005 crisis so severe, and why were measures not taken to prevent or
Extant literature on consumer information search helps to identify the types of consumer communication sources that might be related to the adoption of technological innovations. Although a variety of external information sources have been introduced in the consumer behavior literature, the three major societal sources of information have been identified as marketer-provided (e.g., corporation, industry), independent third-party (e.g., government, independent agencies), and inter-personal (e.g.. family, friends)(J. Lee & Hogarth, 2000; Mazis, Staelin, Beales, & Salop, 1981; Newman & Staelin,
The developing countries still have the problem of medication, food and clean water. Even if there is a health center in rural area it is very difficult to find transportation in order to reach there. Because of such problem many people die in Africa. The life expectancy in developed countries increased after world war the second. I would like to mention one of Sub-Saharan country Kenya: In Kenya infant mortality declined- first contributing a rise in life expectancy at birth from about 42 years in the early 1950s to 56 years.
In 2003, the President Lula Silva launched programmes such as ‘Bosla Familia’ – cash transfer programme that gives money to the impoverished families under the condition that they keep their children vaccinated and in school. In Tanzania due to corrupt government and the problem of accountability in leadership, there is high % of population who receive less than $1.25- $2 a day. There isn’t proper distribution of income. From 84.5 in 2000 it drastically reduced to 67.8 in 2007. This was due to the introduction of programmes (MKUKUTA) which aimed at reducing poverty and improving food