The CW Retentate fraction The retentate whey fraction contains globular proteins that can be isolated from whey. The whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey Protein Isolate (WPI) are used in the food industry cosmetology and pharmacology (see tab 3, P4 and P5 processes; 1.15,1.17). The proteins, are present in CW in quantity of 6 grams/liter represent 15%–22% of milk proteins, are considered beneficial for health and are characterized by high nutritional value and therapeutic potential [1.17,1.38,1.50. The major whey proteins are: α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine IgG. (4.1).
Bovine milk has a ratio of casein to whey proteins of 80:20, however, human milk has a ratio of 40:60. The protein content of human milk decreases rapidly during the first month of lactation (14-16g/L during early lactation, 8-10g/L at 3-4 months, and 7-8g/L at 6 months and later). The reason behind this decrease is due to the diminution in whey protein concentration . These changes lead to a whey protein to casein ratio of 90:10 (early lactation), 60:40 in mature milk and 50:50 in late lactation. Within the casein fraction the relative proportion of various subclasses differ between bovine and human milk.
Milk: Two Types of Protein: The protein in milk is 20 percent whey and 80 percent casein. Whey protein is a fast-acting form of protein used as a main ingredient in many muscle-building drinks and powders. Casein protein is a slower-digesting protein that is also used in muscle-building
In the conjunctival epithelium, the superficial squamous epithelial cells are usually CK4 positive, while the glandular goblet cells are CK7 positive (Table 1). CKs consist of pairs of type I (acidic) and type 2 (neutral or basic) CK (Rao, et al., 2014). In response to stress (dryness, shear stress) non-keratinized epithelium can react by keratinizing to form a granular layer and stratum corneum to protect the tissue. This change can be seen in the ocular surface in DED patients (Maumenee, 1979) and in the OME (linea alba) (Canaan & Meehan, 2005; Nanci, 2013)A mucin layer covers and protects the wet epithelial surfaces, such as the ocular surface and the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs, and the oral cavity (Argueso & Gipson, 2001; Frenkel & Ribbeck, 2015; Linden, et al., 2008). Mucins are large, highly glycosylated glycoproteins that are either secreted or membrane-bound.
A metaphase checkpoint also occurs at this time ensuring that I am prepared for division. After they have aligned and attached, anaphase begins. During anaphase, the centromeres connecting the two sister chromatids are pulled apart and the separated chromosomes move to opposite poles, pulled by spindle fibers. The separated sister chromatids are then referred to as daughter chromosomes. These spindle fibers make up the mitotic spindle which is connected to my cell’s pole at the opposite end of the attached chromosome.
Upon hydrolysis, yak milk casein generate antihypertensive peptides, such as YQKFPQY (αs2-CN; f89-95), LPQNIPPL (β-CN; f70-77), SKVLPVPQK (β- CN; f168-176), LPYPYY (κ-CN; f56-61) and FLPYPYY (κ-CN; f55-61), and two novel ACE-inhibiting peptides (Jiang et al., 2007). Yak milk fat possesses 3.2 times higher ω-3 PUFA as compared to cow milk fat (Or-Rashid et al., 2008). North eastern region of India and nearby countries have evolved a wide variety of traditional milk based products having cultural popularity along with their putative health benefits. Kurut Kurut is basically a Turkish whey drained
Milk is a three phase (polyphasic) secretion of the mammary glands. The three phases are an oil in water phase which consists of fat droplets/globules dispersed in whey, a colloidial suspension of proteins such as casein micelles, globular proteins, and lipoprotein particles and the third phase is the solution of soluble proteins, minerals, lactose, vitamins, and other components . The main component of milk is water and compounds such as fat(3.9%), protein (3.3%), lactose (5%), and minerals (0.7%) . Milk also contains vitamins (e.g., vitamins A and C), enzymes (e.g., lactoperoxidases (LP) and acid phosphatase), and somatic cells Ehret, H. J., Ducruet, V., Luciani, A., and Feigenbaum, A. (1994) Styrene and ethylbenzene migrationfrom polystyrene into dairy products by dynamic purge and trap chromatography, Journal of Food Science 59: 990–992, 1001 Spoilage is term used to describe the deterioration of foods’ texture, colour, odour or flavour to the point where the foods are unsuitable for human consumption.
2.4.1 Hydrolysis In the first stage, complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins) are hydrolyzed, resulting in simpler compound (simple sugars like glucose) through enzymes produced by fermentive bacteria. In an anaerobic digestion process where organic polymers form a substantial portion of the waste stream to be treated, the hydrolyzing bacteria and their enzymes are of paramount importance because their activity produces the simpler substrates for the succeeding steps in the degradation sequence. The most common extra cellular hydrolytic enzymes are lipases, proteases, amylases and cellulases, which are excreted by hydrolytic bacteria (Zeikus 1980). Other extra cellular enzymes which may participate in the initial hydrolysis step of anaerobic digestion are the pectinolytic enzymes such as those elaborated by some Bacillus and Clostridium species, and the dextranases of, for example, Bacillus species. In sewage sludge, hydrolytic bacterial populations are usually high and generally comprise between 108 and 1010 bacteria per mL of sludge (Hobson et al 1974).
Whey a by-product in the manufacturing of dairy products mainly cheese, paneer and shows great potential for the development of dairy products due its nutritional value since it is not only a source of the most biological valuable proteins but also rich in proteins, but also rich in minerals and vitamins mainly riboflavin. Whey constitute about 80-90% of the volume of milk used for conversion into channa, paneer, cheese and casein. When it is drained off, there is a great loss of nutrients, creating a serious problem of environmental pollution. Depending on the type of casein coagulation, whey can be sweet or acid. Sweet whey: titratable acidity 0.10-0.20%, pH 5.8-6.6.
Lipases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of oils and fats and, under appropriate working conditions, will also present catalytic activities of esteriﬁcation, transesteriﬁcation, and alcoholysis reactions [5-7]. Novozym 435 is an immobilized lipase obtained from Candida antarctica used in various industrial application mainly in formation of organic esters It has stability at high temperature, over a wide pH range, easy handling and repeated use, immobilized lipases have been employed in a number of industrial reactions. Lipases are specific towards the ester bond . Organic esters like Octyl acetate is major aliphatic esters present in melon, apricot as flavoring component which serve as fixative and modifier. Traditionally, these esters are prepared by chemical synthesis and also by fermentation, which require a lot of puriﬁcation steps and these are often expensive for commercial production  Due to the overwhelming interest in natural products, biotechnology should be attractive to produce ﬂavors of natural aroma from natural precursors