Many scientist today cut portions of DNA with restriction enzymes and include a piece of new genetic material into the bacterial cells. The only way this transformation can take place is if the bacteria is competent and is grown to the right stage in which they are dividing the most. In order for this to happen,one would treat the bacterial cells with Calcium Chloride (CaCl2). The bacteria used in this lab was E.Coli and it was an ideal bacteria because it can be easily grown on agar.
The peptide when further engineered makes two slightly different versions i.e. Melanotan 1 and 2. The two types mimic the body’s alpha-melanocyte and a stimulating hormone known (α-MSH) produced in the pituitary gland. Working like other body melanocortins, they are main agents that cause a number of internal body functions to happen such as hair and skin pigmentation, appetite changes, and raising your libido level. Both the sexual function and libido level changes are only exclusive to Melanotan
In lab, we learned to distinguish two types of bacteria using the gram stain, gram positive and gram negative. Since S. Aureus has a thick peptidoglycan cell wall with teichoic acid, it stains gram positive. Further tests will indicate the bacteria, including the presence of catalase, sheep blood hemolysis, mannitol fermentation, halotolerance, and coagulase, which S. Aureus is positive for all. 3.)
Counting the bacteria means determining the number of bacteria in a specific sample. There are many ways that we can use to count the microorganisms, one of which is the plate count. The plate count technique is used to count only the living bacteria by counting the number of colonies. Due to the large number of bacteria, and to be able to count it, the bacteria should be diluted several times and spread on an agar plate. In this way, colonies can be counted.
Introduction Our world is composed of many bacteria’s’ that can either help or destroy us. Therefore, its’s imperative to learn and study them. The purpose of the lab was to put into action the methods that have been learned in the laboratory to determine our unknown bacteria. Bacteria’s can have different features, shapes, and or arrangements that help microbiologist determined their role in our life (whether they are good or bad for humans).
The Gram Stain test was first performed to differentiate the bacteria based on the thickness of the peptidoglycan layer in its cell wall. The unknown bacteria appeared purple and round, therefore indicating a gram-positive cocci bacterium. The purple color was observed because S. agalactiae had a thicker layer of peptidoglycan in its cell wall, therefore it allowed for the cell wall to not be stripped away after the addition of ethyl alcohol, but rather enabled for the peptidoglycan to form pores (Madani, 2003). The pores then trapped the crystal violet-iodine complex, which produced the purple color of the bacteria cells that were observed under the light microscope. Catalase Test To further identify the gram positive unknown bacteria, the Catalase test was conducted in order to differentiate the gram-positive species into the Staphylococcus species (catalase-producers) or the Streptococcus species (catalase
For the orange, the distance the band traveled was 39mm and the distance solvent traveled was 39mm and the Rf was calculated at 1mm. For strawberry the distance band traveled 38mm and the distance the solvent traveled was 41mm and the calculated Rf was .927mm. The colors for strawberry, orange and grape Kool-Aid are made with food dye. There is also salt that is found in Kool-Aid that is why when placed in the tubes containing %NaCl, the solvent caused the drops on the strips to travel so far. The results in this were expected.
Catechol oxidase is found in cell cytoplasm, their function in plants are to "help protect damaged plants bacterial and fungal disease." The objective of this experiment is to test the presences of catechol oxidase in various fruits and vegetables. Our group hypothesis states that, If catechol oxidase is present in the selected extracts, the null hypothesis is that catechol oxidase is not present in the selected extracts. Next, the prediction would be, if catechol oxidase doesn't differ with other enzyme sources, then the rates will
Our results from the PCR process were very unexpected, even to the point the control colony had some rather odd outcomes. The goal of this experiment was to choose three colonies from the petri dish that has been exposed to +Amp, and look for any signs of the +Amp resistant gene, blaTEM, within the colonies and decide if this gene does have an impact on bacterial resistance towards the antibiotic. My partner and I decided to utilize a bacterial colony sample that does have blaTEM genes as our control group for us to indicate what a blaTEM gel strand would appear in the agarose gel results. When observing the product of the gel product after gel electrophoresis, we were surprised to find out none of our three colonies had any strands that indicated the presence of blaTEM despite each of them surviving through the exposure to this antibiotic.
However, when these bacteria are grouped together to have high cell density, the molecules they secrete amount to a certain number, and once that number is reached, the behavior of that bacteria is switched on and in this case, bioluminescence is created. Similarly, in my project, I am screening the anti bacterial activity using oils. Before I use the oil, I have to culture the bacteria overnight so that I could use them in the plates after 16-18 hours of incubation. Based on the talk, I believe that I have an idea on how bacteria grow. This Ted Talk has inspired me about science in numerous aspects.
Transformation was successful in the plates where the bacteria consumed the pGLO plasmid. In the first plate that the bacterium was plated on it included the LB broth and of ampicillin antibiotic (amp), 2 colonies were present. The second plate of bacteria was grown with the presence of LB broth, ampicillin, arabinose sugar (ara), and 22 colonies were observed. But a green fluorescent glow of the colonies was only present in plate 2. Plates 3 and 4 were the control plates.
After incubation, a gram stain was performed one the colonies that were isolated. First, the organism was smeared onto a slide with a loop full of distilled water. The smear was heat fixed to provide the bacteria to stick to surface. Next, the staining started by using crystal violet for 60 seconds, rinsed with distilled water. Then iodine for 60 seconds, rinsed with
We then flipped the dish and sectioned it off into 4 sections, which then were marked with the specific genotype that would be inoculated into that section. The initials of the group were also put on the dish. Then we used an inoculating loop to cut out sections of the fungus. The inoculating loop was sterilized with a flame and let cool down before touching the fungus. After cutting a block of the fungus, we placed it on the petri dished in the section that was appropriately marked for that specific strain.
The organism that was successfully cultured from the first lab was use to streak into other plates. Samples from the previously cultured MAC and blood agar were streaked on two different sides of an EMB, SS, and MSA plate. Samples of bacteria were also used to inoculate Citrate and TSI media. The inoculation of TSI and Citrate media were as follows: The materials were gathered, which include the previously cultured media, an inoculation needle and the Citrate and TSI medium.
The purpose of this lab was to perform a procedure known as genetic transformation which allowed us to genetically engineer E. Coli to be ampicillin resistance. Before the lab we expected that lysogeny broth and minus DNA will have growth but no glow. The lysogeny broth, ampicillin, and