INTRODUCTION Autism Spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder which includes three main features problem with socialization, problem with communication, repetitive and inflexible behaviour. A child with autism spectrum disorder use non speech behaviours and they have difficulty to make eye contact, facial expression. The peer group interaction of an autistic child is far behind a normal child. They may not respond, when other people try to get their attention. These all features make barriers in the child ability to take part in socialization.
However, since the children looked to their mother to react to the upset confederate, it appears that the child can only label basic emotion such as sadness in others and want to help them. This does not necessarily indicate that the child is sharing in the confederate’s sadness. Therefore, the child has displayed sympathy but not empathy. Albeit, this observation is still significant in the growth of a child’s emotional and social development. If a child is not able to identify that a given stranger is distraught or is unable to take action to help the stranger, it may indicate difficulties in identifying complex emotion in human faces.
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)- allows children with little to no verbal ability to communicate using pictures Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT)- the goal of this method is to make an improvement in communication, play and social behaviors and the child’s ability to monitor his own behavior Relationship Development Intervention (RDI)- to improve long-term quality of life by helping improve social skills, adaptability, and self-awareness to build social and relational skills. Social Communication/Emotional Regulation/Transactional Support (SCERTS)- promotes child initiated communication in everyday activities and the ability to learn while in a variety of settings. There are many difficulties with autism, including risks, physical and mental issues. Risks with ASD would
The concept diversity is for the definition of exceptionality; the need for special education is for an educational definition. Exceptional learners differ from most (typical or average) individuals in a particular way that is relevant to their education. Their educationally relevant difference demands instruction that differs from what most (typical or average) learners require. In an excerpt from Exceptional Children an Introduction to Special Education, Heward (2006) defined exceptional children that includes those students who experience difficulties in learning as well as those whose performance is so superior that modifications and specialization in instruction and curriculum are necessary to help them attain their potential.
Moreover, for parents that have a child with autism, home treatment could be done. (Autism – Home Treatment, 2013) Parents must educate themselves about autism and work closely with others who care for their child. Meet doctors when your child shows symptoms of autism for advice and consultations. (Parker.
The student may feel overwhelmed and incapable of doing better, be influenced by peers, have a learning style that is not being accommodated in class, lack the ability to discipline himself to do the work, seek attention from parents or teachers, show gaps in attendance, or move frequently. Fortunately, depending on the cause of underachievement, it is possible to help an underachiever improve. Early intervention increases the possibility of improvement and may prevent the behavior from becoming a problem in adult life. Interventions include meeting the parents to discuss the problem and sharing ideas on how to help the child, counseling and tutoring the child, and exploring the possibility of a behavior modification plan targeting academics and on-task behavior (Longsdon, 2015).
The first hypothesis is the selection hypothesis which place both partnership and instability and the child behavior problems together. For instance, a parent can have psychological problems and find it difficult for him/her to maintain it, and his/her child can display more behavior problems. The second hypothesis is the reverse causality, and this is when parents have a child who has a serious behavior problem that can cause more partnership instability. In addition to this, parents raising a child without being married is similar to parents who are divorced. The effect of a child’s well-being shows negative outcomes.
Even though both of these children may show resistant towards changes in routine, the ordinary gifted children are not as inflexible and egocentric about routines as some AS children are (Neihart, 2000). Children with AS can easily overwhelmed by minor modifications in daily routines. When the changes in the environment do not follow their “rules”, they feel upset (Stokes). They can become anxious and worry about the unknown. For example, when a child with AS says “Thank you” to someone, he assumes instantly reply with “You’re welcome”.
Human beings with autism have said that the world, to them, appears to be a mass of events, people and places which they contend to make sense of, and which can cause them considerable anxiety. To be specific relating and understanding to other people, and taking part in everyday social life and family may be a bit challenging for them. Other people appear to know, intuitively, how to communicate and interact with each other, and some people with autism may wonder why they are different. People with autism have challenges with both non-verbal and verbal language. Many of them have a literal understanding of language, and think people always mean exactly what they say.
They often have low self-confidence and anxiety about making mistakes, and are usually sensitive to criticism. Other characteristics typical of these children include a tendency to be critical of others, being socially inhibited, procrastinating, avoiding stressful situations or difficult tasks, having difficulty making decisions, and even getting headaches or other physical ailments when they don't meet their own or other people's expectations. She adds that gifted children who are used to excelling often tend to be perfectionists. Perfectionism may lead these children to leave their work incomplete if they fear an imperfect outcome, resulting in underachievers.
The aim of this research is to critically explore the effectiveness of service provisions available for young carers of parental mental illness (PMI). The Mental Health Act (2007) s1. defines a mental disorder as “any disorder or disability of the mind”. The research will allow both young carers and social work practitioners to express their critical view of the interventions and support currently available. The young carers engaged in this research will be aged between 15 and 18. Also, it will include social workers who work in both child and mental health departments of social services.
From the moment a child is born, he or she has basic needs for comfort and affection that should be met. Children that are not properly nurtured early in life do not form quality attachments with adults and learn that they cannot be trusted to meet the child’s needs. Reactive attachment disorder can develop when the child does not form loving, secure, and stable attachments with others, caused by inadequate or inconsistent care, maternal depression or separation, abuse, or neglect, among other things. As the child ages, this can lead to a myriad of difficulties, some examples being issues regulating emotions and behavior, a lack of cause and effect thinking, a desire to be in control, poor peer relationships, lying, and a destructive, impulsive, and manipulative nature. It is believed that children with reactive attachment disorder have the ability to form secure attachments, but this capacity has been compromised by their experiences early in life.
There are also some teachers who have not been taught how to identify dyslexia. Even if the teacher does recognize the problem, there are certain guidelines that must be met in order to get the testing done. Some of these children will not meet these guidelines. Once a child meets the guidelines to be tested, there is no one test for dyslexia.
Many Parents find it difficult to help control their kids’ tantrums. The kids have difficulty eating, sleeping, interacting with peers. It hard to say that Autism is for life I can’t imagine having a child with autism. Working with Autism and learning so much about it is gift. Autism is a disorder that produce repetitive behavior in a child and affects ability to socialize with others, and decreases their ability to communicate.