7.1 DESIGN OF PFC BL BUCK–BOOST CONVERTER A PFC BL buck–boost converter is designed to operate in DICM such that the current in inductors Li1 and Li2 becomes discontinuous in a switching period. For a BLDC of power rating 251 W (complete specifications of the BLDC motor are given in the Appendix), a power converter of 350 W (Po) is designed. For a supply voltage with an rms value of 220 V Fig. 4. Supply current at the rated load on BLDC motor for different values of input side inductors with supply voltage as 220 V and dc link voltage as 50 V. The proposed converter is designed for dc link voltage control from 50 V (Vdc min) to 200 V (Vdcmax) with a nominal value (Vdc des) of 100 V; hence, the minimum and the maximum duty ratio (dmin
The measurement including from two devices were observed and recorded in Table 3 and Table 4 . For the reading from AC circuit by using oscilloscope, the peak-to-peak magnitude, period, and frequency of the signal was measured and recorded after a stable waves is obtained. TASK 3 : PHASE MEASUREMENT A series circuit was constructed by connecting a 100ɥF capasitor, 1 kohm resistor and a 4 kHz and 12Vpp function generator as shown in Figure 5 below. The voltages across resistor and capacitor were measured using digital multi-meter and recorded in the Table 7. The oscilloscope was set up to measure the voltage drops across the resistor and capacitor simultaneously.
The current loop transfer function is acquired through the analysis of the single-phase equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 12. The voltage source represents the voltage on the coupling transformer. The dynamic model is obtained through the circuit analysis using average values associated to the switching period. Under these conditions, the voltages Vs(t) and VL(t) are constants.
It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage. The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The use of this filter is very limited.
In the former control, the inverter is operated in non shoot-through (ST) state with varying SPWM values between 0 ≤ M ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ M ≤ 2∕√3. The latter control utilized Simple boost, Maximum boost & Maximum constant boost control to get maximum voltage gain G which obtained by decreasing the Boost factor B and increases the Modulation index M as possible. Among all these methods, Maximum boost control will be efficient to give minimum voltage stress across the inverter but it introduce low frequency ripple content on the passive elements of the inverter. III. COMPARSION OF ZSI & QZSI IN VARIOUS RES Z source topology and its improved version Quasi Z source contributes more in Renewable energy systems like solar, wind and Fuel cell in the past two decade.
B. Bang-Bang Controller In clinics, a bang-bang controller is often used to solve problems. For the bang-bang controller, the input uj(k) is determined by the temperature measured at two pilot points rj1 and rj2. The pilot point rj1 is heuristically selected to be the point with the highest temperature response to the j-th ultrasonic transducer. The output uj(k) is set to the maximum value umax as long as the temperature T(rj1; tk) is below a threshold Tbang and set to zero when the temperature is too high. The pilot point rj2 is used to determine when to permanently shut-off the j-th ultrasonic transducer.