Looking back over the development of the Security Studies field, there can be no doubt that the realist tradition has exercised enormous influence. Even the harshest of critics can acknowledge that with their focus on power, fear, and anarchy, realist theories have provided centrally important explanations for conflict and war (Williams, 2013). One interpretation of realism that is unbroken amongst most commentators of the theory is that realists are individuals that believe the State is the principle actor in international politics and that they are very concerned with the balance of power (Marsalis, 2013). They argue that all the State’s actions and choices are a reflection of the collective will of the people, which is also an argument put
She concludes that PMCs and their employees or mercenaries should be treated as uniformed soldiers and public military organizations. In the first section of this article, Fabre categorically stipulates “my claim is that, under strict conditions (which current practices
The towns and countryside of American are plagues with a range of tragedies that most residents believe to be as a result of witchcraft. When we are first introduced to the lead in the series, he is a young assistant/clerk to the itinerant judge Isaac Woodward. Over the course of a few years, he develops a passion for justice and love and is sent by his employers to a range of locations to uncover truth and confront evil forces threatening the innocent. The first novel in the series Speaks the Nightbird is set in 1600 The Carolinas where the residents of Fount Royal are convinced that their city is cursed due to its many tragedies. Seeking a scapegoat, their wrath falls on Rachel Howarth, a beautiful widow that they demand be executed for practicing witchcraft.
Applying selected concepts of organizational theory to the Mayaguez incident of 1975 leads to a more comprehensive understanding of events and more accurate lessons learned. Application of organizational theory demonstrates the decision processes at the executive level left the military operation vulnerable to failure. Henry Mintzberg structural contingency model and Lee Bowman and Terrence Deal organizational theory are used and are applied to executive behind focusing on the executive level is twofold: First, it is where final critical decisions were made, and second, military operations cannot take place without an executive authorization. The Mayaguez crisis was rife with potential pitfalls and, though President Ford was equipped
1. 2. The Saint Louis Art Museum (SLAM) Case In the past years, there was another similar instance for the repatriation issues relating to the Egyptian collection in one of the U.S. museums. The issue was concerned with one of the ancient Egyptian artifact in Saint Louis Art Museum in Missouri, the Ka-Nefer-Nefer funerary mummy mask (New Kingdom, Dynasty 19, 1295-1186 B.C.). This case was very controversial issue between Saint Louis Art Museum and the Egyptian Government for many following years.
Applying this tactic, the General directly advised President Ho Chi Minh and the Poliburo to conduct this policy which means in term of strategy, it could be permanent as we confront with the enemy patiently, however, the implementation must actively, definitely take advantage of time to gradually change the balance of forces on the battlefield, reduce the length of war. One of the unique art of war that the General consult to the Poliburo to annually exercise the campaign in different scales and areas which combined various types of steps from low to high, thus, to make the breakthrough, pervasiveness, strongly stimulate the previous steps to be superior than the next steps, thereby, creating the instability for the enemy then scattering and imprisoning the enemy in many places so the military can fight in any places they want. According to him, before much more powerful enemies, Vietnam had to use the strength of the whole nation in order to gain the final victory. The General said “it was necessary to bring everything into play to enlighten the masses of the people, educate and encourage them, organize them in is fighting for national salvation.”. In his strategy, one arrow needs to achieve two purposes: the enemy must be constantly disturbed and the military need to make use of their weakness to extend the base and help the citizens, they always need to make the enemy, both generals and their governments tired then frustrated.
• Targeted to influence foreign policy of another state’s government. UK’s state behavior is adopting structural realism, so goes also how it perceived threat. The transnational threat that terrorist spread in the Middle East is in a way perceived as a threat toward the global security. Hence, countries outside the region is getting itself involved in the war. ISIS has fulfilled the requirement to be determined as a threat towards the international security.
The 1978 “Operation King Dragon” was a watershed moment in the history of the Rohingya people. While tensions have always existed since the 1950s where ethnic Rakine and Muslim communities demanded autonomy from the Myanmar government (Smith, 1999), “Operation King Dragon” culminated in legislative action that stripped all Rohingya of citizenship in 1982. Since then, there have been intermittent moves by the Myanmar state to impose forced labour, inflict violence and enforce policies of discrimination on the Rohingya. Such patterns of persecution have continued till today, and have actually worsened as Myanmar undertakes democratic reforms. This has resulted in many Rohingya being targeted for killing and increased the number of refugees seeking refuge in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (Singh, 2014).
Radicalization refers to the due process that results in people adopting radical stands on various issues such as political and social-economic matters. The radicalization process involves accepting ideas and ways of life that are contrary to the general views of the society. These views and newly adopted ideals may lead to terrorism. Some individuals or groups further employ violence to promote these views, also called violent radicalization. The New Yorker article ‘Journey to Jihad’ by Ben Taub, illustrates the story of why teenagers are joining ISIS.
For example, in the United States of America although the written constitution are rigid and inflexible, the judicial system is given a huge authority to strike down laws on the basis that it is ‘unconstitutional’. In Comparison,the Human Rights act enacted in the year 1998 is a significant constitutional importance as it had stroked a compromise in the affording of rights to the people and the sovereignty of parliament. Furthermore, it had incorporated the European Convention on Human Rights, which meant that the rights of individual was recognised in the national laws and they were entitled to it. The Human Rights acts 1998 had given the judges a more specific, legal basis on which to measure the balance of the authority of the parliament to and the rights of the individual. Due to Parliamentary Sovereignty, there is no ability for a judicial review to occur at the primary stage; when a bill is been passed through the Two House of parliament.