Chunking is often described as the organization of information into meaningful units thereby making it easier to remember (Gazzaniga, Heatherton, & Halpern, 2003). Often time this can be in the form of pairing objects into smaller groups or finding a way to categorize a large number of objects so it 's easier for the brain. The basis of this technique lies in the claim that humans can only memorize 7 things in their short-term memory. Thus through the chunking technique people can potentially increase the number of things they can remember, which can be useful in both professional or everyday settings. Although this technique has little effect on long-term memory recall, studies have shown that it can have significant impact on short-term memory recall.
Another benefit of being bilingual is the ability if utilize and expressideas in different languages. When people are confronted in a situation and they have to provide answer for particular question then bilingualism enable individual to find the appropriate word from two different languages thus it help them to provide best answers. It also allow one to rely on their skills and enhance their cognitive skills. However, it is also indicated that cognitive abilities of a bilingual individual is sharper than an individual who can only speak one language(Bialystok, Craik, &Luk, 2012). This has been observed that such people have great skills of accent neutralization, syntax understanding and code switching.
Students learning a second language also show having enhanced memory, planning and multitasking. Multilinguals use more of their brains than monolinguals and are more encouraged for flexible thinking and communication skills.
Regarding the direction of transfer, this study indicates more positive transfer in case of preferred to non-preferred hand than in case of non-preferred to preferred hand in young adult population when considering speed and accuracy together as well as in terms of speed but not in terms of accuracy. Positive bilateral transfer between two arms can be supported by the concept of Intermanual Crosstalk, which incorporates the notion that there are two motor controllers generating motor commands, one for each arm (Marteniuk & Mackenzie, 1980; Bagesteiro & Sainburg, 2002). Interference and transfer of learning between the arms are thought to occur because of an interaction of the motor commands and/or feedback signals between the arms (crosstalk),
The results showed that while the context memory was greater than chance performance of 50%, there was no significant difference between the distractor and target conditions and thus the context memory for both distractor and target trials did not have much difference. While the item memory during target condition did score higher than during the distractor task, it failed to prove that the attentional boost enhanced contextual memory significantly when tested visually. The experiment overall lacked enough participants to accurately prove a difference, had more participants been involved the results may have proven more useful. Overall the method in which this study was conducted included great insight into the many aspects of contextual memory that could potentially be affected by the attentional boost effect. However the way in which the contextual information was presented in the experiment discussed here, could have been done better.
Between 100,000 and 2,000,000 people worldwide fluently or actively speak Esperanto, including perhaps 1,000 native speakers who learned Esperanto from birth. Esperanto has a notable presence in more than a hundred countries. Its usage is highest in Europe, East Asia, and South America. The phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and semantics are based on the Indo-European languages spoken in Europe. On the other hand, will the introduction and learning of a universal language result in the loss of our primary languages?
With more than half of the world being bilingual nowadays, from which around 50 million are only in the United States, bilingualism is not at all as rare as one may think upon first hearing the word. One of the many interesting things about this phenomenon, about which bilingual people can provide a new and different perspective, is the crucial effect it can have on the way we express ourselves and our emotions. As the author of the article puts it, it can shape the way we communicate and convey our feelings. First of all, corresponding to the vision the paper provides, a person’s first acquired language often has a greater emotional strength than any of the others they may learn later in life. It is the language that they have heard in
Bilingual children tend to respond faster and more accurately than monolingual children in both congruent and incongruent trials (). Although there is a bilingual advantage in interference suppression, findings on response inhibition (the ability to control impulses) is not a consistent, with some studies showing equivalent performances in monolinguals and bilinguals
To have the ability to communicate in more than one language is like having a world passport. Employment opportunities for bilinguals are increasing every day. The 2006 census for the USA shows that 20% of the population speak a language other than English. When you add in the millions of visitors to the USA, the international businesses that operate there, and you can see that there is a big demand for employees who speak another language in addition to English (Balderrama, 2008). “Globalization and improvements in communication technology also provide opportunities for the multilingual worker.
Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student.