Available at http://www.digplanet.com/wiki/Instruction_cycle ) The next instruction to be processed will be fetched from the memory address and this address is the one that is stored in the program counter (PC). This address is then stored in the instruction register (IR). When this happens the program counter will then point to the next instruction that will be read at the next cycle. The next activity will be to decode the instruction found in the instruction register (IR) in order to understand what action is required. This is done by the
This is called the fetch-decode-execute cycle. In order to put instructions and data into memory, high level languages such as C++, Java etc. are used to write programs and instructions. The instructions are converted in binary machine code and stored in the computer’s memory and or storage devices. To execute the program and instructions the reverse process is followed.
Virtual memory management divides a program into partitions called pages. The virtual memory management feature allows your pc to compensate for physical memory shortages temporarily by transferring the data from RAM to disk storage. When a program is executing they are sent to a certain page frame and the rest are held in secondary storage. Pages that are needed in secondary storage will be copied to page frames. Since
Microprocessor picks up data from one of the registers for doing arithmetic or logical operation. Once the operation is over, it stores the result in a register. Data are usually loaded from memory to register. Similarly the resultant data will be loaded from registers to memory. eight Data registers D0 through D7.
Memory Management. Memory management is the process of controlling and coordinating computer memory, Assigning portions called blocks to various running programs to optimize. This is the functionality of an operating system which manages primary memory. It keeps track of each and every memory location. It also does update whenever some memory gets free or unallocated.
In the microkernel, only the most fundamental of tasks are are performed such as being able to access some (not necessarily all) of the hardware, manage memory and coordinate message passing between the processes. Some systems that use microkernels are QNX and the HURD. In the case of QNX and HURD, user sessions can be entire snapshots of the system itself or views as it is referred to. The very essence of the microkernel architecture illustrates some of its
 A digital investigation may encounter many formats of digital data and therefore there exist several types of analysis. The different analysis types are based on interpretation, or abstraction, layers, which are generally part of the data’s design. For example, consider the data on a hard disk, which has been designed with several interpretation layers. The lowest layer may contain 3 partitions or other containers that are used for volume management. Inside of each partition is data that has been organized into a file system or database.
Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts of the CBIS to function in ways that produce useful information from data. Programs are usually stored on some input / output medium-often a disk or tape. Software consists of the computer programs that govern the operation of the computer. These programs allow a computer to process payroll, send bills to customers, and provide managers with information to increase profits, reduce costs, and provide better customer services. Fab Lab Software, for example, controls tools such as cutters, milling machines, and other devices.