Concrete materials are still a dominant material for construction due to its advantages suchas workability, low cost and fire resistance as well as its low maintenance cost. It is formed from a hardened mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and some admixture. Massive exploration of the natural resources for producing concrete affect to the environment condition and global warning. We have responsibility to reduce the effect of the application of concrete materials to environmental impact. The concrete should be used as efficient as possible.
Concrete: cellular concrete of clay- gypsum and invention of light weight concrete Ferro concrete: this concrete is made up of a layer of fine mesh wire saturated with cement. Gunite: or commonly referred as a shot crete. This type or form of concrete is most commonly used in areas where formwork is limited or hard to use. Shoring up exposed vertical excavations, banks or surfaces susceptible to collapse. For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces.
Ceramics and cements are the best examples of brittle fracture. Ductile fracture is better than brittle fracture, because ductile fracture occurs over a period of time, while brittle fracture is fast, and can take place at lower stress levels than a ductile fracture. Ductile fracture involves plastic deformation in the area of an advancing crack, and is a slow process. b) Fatigue: It is defined as
The construction methodology is the same with elastomeric bearings; however, the damping is increased by adding carbon block and other fillers. In addition, it has an adequate resistance to service loads. The damping characteristic is in between hysteric and viscous. The energy dissipation is linear and quadratic for hysteric and viscous, respectively. The energy absorption capability help reduced the earthquake energy transmitted to the superstructure.
The H-shaped beams will be more preferable in this case since; the beams will be able to with stand the shear forces and stress exerted by bending and through shear loads. Due to its shape, it is able to provide efficient support at the top and at the bottom. Its however disadvantaged in that, it is not efficient in carrying torsion as there is preference of hollow structures in this case. The beams are made of steel, which is the most ideal material for use. The load exerted on the beams will be caused by; the load from the self weight caused by the deck, loads resulted to by the live loads, weight exerted due to car skidding as well as effect of braking and horizontal loads as a result of temperature and movements such as wind.
Manufacturing this process was easy to make and inexpensive. Another, effect of the Bessemer process was that there were many new uses of steel that affected the modern world. Also, there were many more jobs created because of the Bessemer process. Manufacturing the Bessemer process was easy because of the converter. The converter was a machine that converts iron to steel by a blast of air in
• Prestressed concrete is a modern material in which the stresses resulting from external loads are counteracted to a desired degree by introducing internal stresses of a suitable magnitude. • In reinforced concrete members, the prestress is commonly introduced by tensioning the steel reinforcement. • The apparent tensile strength of a material like concrete, which is strong in compression but weak in tension, is increased by application of permanent compressive stresses. • ¬¬¬¬Once the initial compression has been applied, the resulting material has the features of ductile high-strength steel when subject to tension forces and high-strength concrete when subjected to any compression forces. The tensile strength of the material increases because the subsequent application of tensile stress must nullify the compressive prestress.
Drilling a gap in concrete is a helpful and convenient strategy. You can set up racks, hang artistic creations, introduce lights, and do significantly more rapidly and securely. The procedure itself is straightforward, however choosing the correct devices and seeing how to utilize them will spare you a colossal measure of time. Setting Up Hammer drill Drilling concrete is substantially less demanding with a hammer drill, or a revolving hammer for huge occupations. These instruments crack the solid through fast hammering and afterward drill to scoop out the broken material.
The material would then be pulverized, with which you would get a powder. When this powder was mixed with water, it would become as hard as rock. Concrete Concrete made it possible to use bricks and concrete to build massive permanent structures. Concrete took the place of rubble for the filling between the bricks of a wall. Stones that were irregularly shaped could now easily be used to build a wall because they had concrete to
It must be sent to a compositing factory to be properly broken down. This was a major problem because there was a limited number of these facilities to properly dispose of these items. PLA also has some very good mechanical properties such as good appearance, high mechanical strength, and low toxicity. Tensile and flexural tests were run for PLA, HDPE, Polypropylene, and Polystyrene, and it turns out that PLA had the highest value of all of these different polymers.This means that the material has very high resistance to wear and tear over time. In an Izod impact test, the material actually had the lowest of these polymers, which means that PLA has a very low impact strength.