The concrete should be used as efficient as possible. Nowadays researches efforts are continuously looking for new, better and efficient construction method. Various theories related to the analysis of structural elements reduced the self-weight of element for a given load- carrying capacity. Structural material optimization can reduce the dead load which reduce the contribution of seismic effect in high rise structures and also very good at the vibration dampers and heat isolation. According to the natural behaviour of the concrete, it is strong in compression and weak in tension.
2. Ferritic stainless steel - Ferritic stainless steels has good engineering properties when compared with austenitic stainless steel grades. In Ferritic stainless steel nickel and chromium content is low so it has low corrosion resistance. Ferritic stainless steels are normally less
For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces. Glass : tempered glass is the choice recommended in high rise buildings as opposed to plain glass as it can resist various live loads and would not shatter. Some advantages and disadvantages of the type of materials used are: non corrosive, easy in casting (in situ) plasticity. Disadvantages can be, the cost to construct the dead weight, (weight associated with the structure) and the challenge or difficulty which may be encountered when pouring
Ceramics and cements are the best examples of brittle fracture. Ductile fracture is better than brittle fracture, because ductile fracture occurs over a period of time, while brittle fracture is fast, and can take place at lower stress levels than a ductile fracture. Ductile fracture involves plastic deformation in the area of an advancing crack, and is a slow process. b) Fatigue: It is defined as
In an Izod impact test, the material actually had the lowest of these polymers, which means that PLA has a very low impact strength. For food packaging polymers, an important factor is their ability to resist transfer of gases, water vapor, and aroma molecules. This is also referred to as permeation, which is not a strong area of PLA. This is due to higher crystallinity of biaxially oriented PLA film. PLA can be recycled back into lactic acid and can be used to make materials of the same quality as before.
In addition, Poly (ether sulphone) is stable in oxidizing agents and various non-polar solvents. However, it does react with low-polarity organic solvents like chlorinated/aromatic hydrocarbons and ketones like methylpyrrolidone. Due to its stiff and yet comparatively flexible structure, it relatively maintains its mechanical and chemical properties from -100 oC to 200 oC. Poly (ether sulphone) is highly resistant to mechanical deformation including complex forces at high temperatures under continuous loading as well as creep deformation under temperatures upto 150 oC. Hence it is resistant to hydrolysis despite being used continuously in steam and boiling
The tensile strength of the material increases because the subsequent application of tensile stress must nullify the compressive prestress. • This can result in improved structural capacity and serviceability compared to conventionally reinforced concrete. • High-strength tendons are used to produce compression. They are made of high- tensile steels, carbon fibers etc. and consist of threaded bars, single or multiple
Flexible plastics are used for fabrication of the heat transfer tubes; PVC and silicone are some common materials used for this (John C. Chato). When considering the heat transfer characteristics, higher diameter pipes are preferred. Because they provide high heat transfer area and allow high refrigerant flow rates at low pumping heads. But usage of tubes with larger diameter increases the rigidity of the kit which is undesirable for convenient movement of the wearer. Therefore LCVGs uses smaller diameter tubes with low wall thickness.
Properties of Roller Compacted Concrete with Pozzolan as Cement Replacement Material Introduction: Roller compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional concrete_ well graded aggregates, cementitious materials, and water_ but different mixture proportions. The largest difference between RCC mixtures and conventional concrete mixtures is that RCC has a higher percentage of fine aggregates, which allows for tight packing and consolidation . RCC may be considered for applications where no-slump concrete can be transported, placed, and compacted
Environment friendly. 1.3. Limitations of powder metallurgy 1) Die and equipment cost is quiet high. Therefore, the process is feasible for mass production. 2) A surface pollution (oxidation or adsorption) introduces the foreign and detrimental matter in the metal powders this can be avoided if all the processes undergone are made in a clean environment i.e.