The formal need analysis is done for the requirement analysis of the teaching at the official levels. However the informal need analysis is done by the teachers to figure out the various levels or points that are required to be improved in students for achieving proficiency in English language in speaking, writing and reading (Iwai et al.,
LEARNING THEORIES 2.9.1 Schema Theory Schema theory introduced by Frederic Charles Bartlett later developed by educational psychologist Anderson (2008) stated that comprehending a text requires activating an existing schema or creating a new schema that organizes the information. Schema theory proposes that people translate information about a situation based on their prior knowledge. A learners background knowledge is referred to as schema in reading literature, which includes all experiences that a reader relates to a text: life experiences, educational experiences, knowledge of how text can be organized rhetorically, knowledge of how first and second language works, knowledge on cultural background. Schema theory assumes that written text
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter presents the theories employed in this study. The discussion covers Interactive Read Aloud theories, including the definition, chronological development, Interactive Read Aloud principles, strategy to conduct a successful Interactive Read Aloud, and the interaction produced during Interactive Read Aloud. Moreover, this chapter also presents theories regarding teaching English to young learners in English as a Foreign Language context. Some studies related to Interactive Read Aloud are also presented. 2.1 Introduction to Interactive Read Aloud Interactive Read Aloud is an important learning activity for building knowledge required by students to be successful in reading (Lippman, 1996).
Ningtas (2015) mentioned that in prediction phase students are encouraged to use context clues and set up the purpose of reading. Moreover, prediction serves as a way for the students to involve in the text and develop interested in the text. 2.8.4 Promote active comprehension Directed reading thinking activity promotes active comprehension by encouraging students to think critically about the text. This strategy is carried out in different phases. Lowe (2006) stated DRTA as a metacognition strategy that teaches students to set a purpose for reading as they develop their thinking processes.
In particular, Litosseliti and Sunderland developed further the ideas of the ‘discursive practices’ (Fairclough, 1992) of the speech acts subversion and endorsement of a text by a teacher. Their eventual interpretation of the categories endorsement and subversion can be seen in the complete model of gendered discursive practices of teachers in relation to texts. The top level of this working framework represents two possible ‘text types’, the boxes below, the ‘talk around the text’. (2002, p.
Keeping in mind the end goal to enable learners to create certainty and confidence, cognitively teachers must examine the proposes of reading instruction and enable learners to create explanatory, procedural, and restrictive learning of these psychological methodologies, in this way assembling that would advance learners metacognitive control of particular learning strategies. The Linguistic foundations of reading and writing development is based on the viewpoint that the writer or reader uses their knowledge of the things around them and the structure of language to make connections of reading or writing content. According to research linguists, all cultures try to represent key aspects of their verbal language into their written languages. Based on major developments and contributions, " Letters and letter units correspond to particular sounds (phonemes); spaces in between words represent junctures in spoken language; and typographical RUNNING HEAD: Benchmark Reading Instruction features represent other linguistic properties (emphasis, the end of the sentence, etc.)"
ABSTRACT With the increasing significance and the global requirement of English language, attempts are being made to elevate the quality of teaching English with the postulate that teaching English aids the acquirement of English language. The purpose of this article is to understand the English teaching approach adopted by Pakistani teachers at secondary level, and to discover whether their teaching methods facilitate in language acquisition. In order to find out, a remote district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province Pakistan, Chitral was selected. Randomly selected secondary schools were visited by the researcher and English teachers were consulted and interviewed in order to note the teaching and the learning processes. It was discovered that
Heathcote (1970) pinpoints that drama naturally serves thinking, talking, and writing through role-playing and collaborative work. Similarly, Carroll (1980) believes that the act of role-taking in the classroom is central to the creation of discourses that represent students thinking. For Carroll (1988), drama is a creative force that demands a different sort of discourse from both teacher and students. In his study, he used socio-linguistic frameworks and Halliday’s Systemic Linguistics to compare the talks that occur in drama and talk in another classroom. Carroll indicated the differences between drama classrooms and ‘regular classrooms’ to make a point regarding the importance (or appropriateness) of drama work in
1) Creative Drama in the Classroom According to Annarella (1992), creative drama can help students to create unique thinking skills, inventive creativity, and cognitive thinking skills. Also, it can stimulate the development of oral and written communication skills. The author expresses that if creative drama use in a social context, it can demonstrate the student the way to be empathetic to the needs of others and thus the student should be better able to form a value judgment. Creative drama is a holistic approach to academic learning. In the article, there are some non-threatening exercises and examples about how to use creative drama in the classroom.
Theoretical Base: Learning theory of MM developed by Dr Maria Montessori is based on careful observation of what children reveals about their developmental needs. L2 is presented like L1. Role of T and L: The teacher has to adjust the usage of Montessori materials according to different ages of the learners. Learners are expected first to learn vocabulary through different activities followed by pinking materials. Skills: MM focuses mainly on Speaking and Writing followed by Reading.