These days, usage of fossil fuel is a controversial issue for several different aspects; for economical, environmental, political, and ethical reasons, worldwide audiences are paying attention on fossil fuels. The rate of the usage of the fuel energy has never declined since the industrial revolution, especially for the transportation. In fact, there are 1.2 billion vehicles in the world and most cars rely on fossil fuel as an energy source. There are three main fuel sources, coal, natural gas and oil, which help the fuel electricity demands of the world today. Fossil fuels, however, is an energy that people will no longer going to be able to access from someday.
The burning of fossil fuels was acknowledged to be dangerous for the human beings as well as for the ecosystem. The leading causes of air pollution are the power plants, ships, airplanes and vehicles. The demand for more energy and better life quality compel the human beings to consume more and more fossil fuels since the alternative energy sources are still objects of research and a promise for the
Chemical Properties: Reaction with air: - When plutonium is exposed to air it begins to oxidise, it forms a yellowish-brown outer coat and begins to tarnish. Soluble in: - Hydrochloric acid Insoluble in: - Nitric acid - Concentrated hydrogen sulfide The Critical Mass: - Around 300 grams which is only about a third of that of Uranium 235 Allotopic Structures: - Plutonium exhibits six forms of crystalline structures. The only form that exists at room temperature is the alpha structure. It has the highest electrical resistivity of any metallic
However, driven by the environmental impact that it causes, new sources of energy are increasingly becoming implemented especially in developed Countries. On the other hand, strong evidence suggests that becoming too reliant on natural gas poses numerous and complex risks, including persistent price volatility and rising global warming emissions. (The Natural Gas Gamble. A Risky Bet on America's Clean Energy Future, 2015) From an International perspective, coal is one of the major raw materials that use maritime logistics and a complete shift of energy source would have a huge impact in the industry. A total shift would mean extremely expensive investments in ports to adapt or change its facilities to support this new material.
Excessive use of this energy leads to the shortage of it in the near future. As a result we can see a tremendous increase in the price of fuels mainly petrol and diesel. Disadvantages of conventional energy: Once exhausted it cannot be replenished. It produces green house effect and hence cause environment pollution. It leads to global warming.
Environmental destruction can occur in various ways; however, it is proven that releasing unreserved amount of carbon gases (CO2, CH4, NO2 and CFCs) into the environment is one of the most serious causes that led the destruction critically, for instance, these gasses instigate climate changes that affect many environmental disturbances (Chapin III et al., 2000). In addition, burning fossil fuel is the major human activity that releases carbon gasses through transportation and industry. However, it is not reasonable to argue that increasing the cost of fuel is the most efficient way to solve the immediate and imminent problems that the environment faces when there are other methods that would produce more efficient outcomes. Therefore, this
All this products are highly demanded on the market, but in different quantities. As it is shown in Fig.4 the biggest demand is for diesel and gasoline, used in transport. Fig.3 Share of products obtained from refinery In order to achieve this ratio of final products, additional units and processes in refineries are introduced. After the primary destilatian in Crude Destilation unit (CDU), heavy products are fed into Vacuum Destilation Unit (VDU). The vacuum distilate is treated in Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) or Distillate Hydro Cracker (DHC).
Manufacturing industries and power plants emit high levels of carbon monoxide, and chemicals into the air. Most of the industries are established in urban areas instead of rural areas. This happens almost everywhere that people live. Petroleum refineries also release lots gases in the air. Burning Fossil Fuels: Transportation has become a necessary part of our lives.
Till 21st century ,mankind has invented many new technology to reduce the effort and time of the human being in all the fields. In transportation sector they have invented automobiles which runs with the help of the engine which is known as internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine is an engine which uses fossil fuelsin which there is a combustion of fossil fuel like petrol and diesel with air and with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the engine. The problem in using IC engine is that they need fuel for combustion and when these fuels are burnt there is liberation of large amount of pollutants which is very harmful to the environment. Today fossil fuels are used in many fields like power plants, internal & external combustion engines, as heat source in manufacturing industries, etc as source of energy.