Hоwever, when emulsifying agents are present, they increase the interfacial tension and obstruct the coalescence of water drоplets. Everything what lowers the interfacial tension will aid in separation. 2.1.7 Viscosity. Viscоsity plays two primary roles in the stability of an emulsions. First, as oil viscosity increases, the migration of demulsifying agents to the water droplets oil-water interface is retarded.
Due to several layers of thermal resistance intervened between the heating element and the blood to be warmed, the productivity of the system is reduced. If the warming blood is placed in a non-sterile water bath. It is a perfect medium for growing bacteria which can contaminate the whole blood. Apparently, the intravenous tube must be verified prior to the transfusion. If there is a leak with the intravenous tube, it causes mixing of the blood and non-sterile warming fluid in the water bath .
The magnitude of error (temperature difference) also depends on the nature of the reaction whether reaction is endothermic or exothermic, the heating rate sample thermal conductivity, and geometry of sample holder . It can be reduced by using a small amount of sample to minimise diffusion controlled weight loss and promote better homogeneity of temperature than can be obtained with larger samples , lowering heating rate, correcting for sample container temperature (by taking a difference between crucible and furnace thermocouple) and proper positioning of thermocouple that is to say placing thermocouple very close to sample but not in contact with it in a zone where temperature would be equal to that of an empty sample pan
This shows that the rate of cooling can drastically affect the mechanical properties of the material. For instance, cooling the steel very quickly from a temperature above 727 0C causes the steel to form a structure called martensite. This structure is extremely hard and vey brittle. Furthermore, reheating the specimen to a lower temperature increases the toughness but lowers the hardness. Understanding how hardness is affected by heat treatment processes is very important, since it will allow us to choose the correct heat treatment method to be used on steel for different applications.
Operating temperatures Compatibility with fluid Often a compromise is made when base material is selected for the designing of good quality rubber seal. Because fillers reduce the basic properties of elastomer. All elastomers change their properties when these base rubber contact with a sealed medium. This change depends on the chemistry of medium. This medium can damage the rubber if the temperature is rise.
The common impurities suspended in the compressed air are dust particles of various sizes, moisture, and oil particles. Excess moisture present in the pipeline may result in coagulation of particles and jam the nozzle opening. Air filters have a porous membrane having various pores sizes like 5, 10, or15 µms. They block the particles larger than the pores. The line pressure is regulated by pressure regulator.
In the alkali-catalyzed process, the presence of free fatty acid (greater than 1 mg/g KOH) and water in the oil can cause high amounts of undesirable soap formation, also consuming some quantity of alkaline catalyst and reduces the eﬀectiveness, all of which result in a lower conversion. Therefore, for the feedstock
Relative area of anode and cathode: Corrosion also depends upon the area of the anode and cathode. Smaller the anodic area more is the rate of corrosion because oxidation of anode occurs at faster rate. 2. Nature of corroding environment: i. Temperature: Corrosion depends on the temperature of the environment.
This additive has low water content as well as a different particle seize that varies from group to group. Heavy weight additives are chemically inactive and can react with other chemicals (additives) (Joel, 2010). Viscosity Control Additives and Dispersants: This additive is introduced to viscosify the cement slurry while Dispersants, are introduced to help in reducing the viscosity of the cement slurry or the slurry consistency. These additives are used when designing high density slurry and also to improve fluids lose control (Joel, 2010). Fluid Loss Control Additives: Fluid-Loss or Permeability Plugging additive are added to reduce the rate at which water from the cement slurry enters the permeable formations when positive differential pressures exist in the permeable formation.
The organism used to treat the pollutants are called bioremediators. There are a lot of examples of bioremediation. One of the common examples of bioremediation is phytoremediation. Phytoremediation uses plants to treat the pollution. For example, when there are contamination of metals, solvents or crude oil in static water environment, plants such as mustard plant, hemp and pigweed can be used to treat the pollutant.