Compare and contrast the biological processes underlining the innate and adaptive immunity The complexity of the human immune system comprises of specialised cells(leukocytes), proteins (antibodies, lysozymes), tissues (lymphatic vessels), and organs (spleen) working together to fight off pathogens due to constant exposure. The first line of defence is the innate immune system which reacts rapidly to the pathogens. Whilst the adaptive immune system responds slowly to infection and also possesses a high degree of specificity. However, it is the activities of the innate immune system that prompt the response of the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system, known as the non-specific defence mechanisms uses various components to protect
Firstly is the transfemoral, which means through the femoral artery or second common way is the transapical way that is through a small cut to the left side to the chest. (1) This aortic stenosis lead to flow blood out of the heart and this disease is common to adults over 65 years old. The common symptoms of this disease can breathlessness, or chest pain, exercise restriction or collapse. (2) 2. What are the main differences between TAVI and convectional valve replacement techniques?
Regenerative medicine refers to the repair of, or the replacement of organs, cells and tissues in a human system. This will be done to tissues, cells or organs that have been damaged by disease, trauma or being damaged over extended periods of time. There are several ways to repair the organs, tissues or cells but the most promising way of doing this is with stem cell therapy. Regeneration and therefore revitalisation of these organs, tissues or cells can and should be done as they get worn-out, using stem cell therapy to carry out the restoration. The definition of worn-out is: damaged to the point of no longer being usable.
Although catastrophic events such as stroke, heart attack, renal failure, and dementia usually happen after long periods of uncontrolled hypertension only. Essential hypertension accounts for 95% of all cases of hypertension. It is a heterogeneous disorder, with different patients having different causal factors that lead to high Blood Pressure. However, there are factors leading to primary hypertension, which are called “Risk factors”. These risk factors could be the result of genetic and environmental factors such as family history of hypertension and health habits like high level of sodium in diet, alcohol consumption, obesity, physical inactivity, age, and psychological stress (Kamide,
In HD, an extra-corporal device is used, whereas in PD the peritoneal membrane acts as a filter. TX patients receive their allograft from living or cadaveric donors. To prevent allograft rejection, immunosuppressant therapy is required including the use of prednisolone, cyclosporine or tacrolimus, which could also affect the oral health. End stage renal disease (ESRD) encompasses a wide range of metabolic disorders affecting every system of the body leading to a very immunocompromised situation. More than a million people worldwide have their lives extended through the development of renal replacement therapy.
Zoe Imagine being on a national organ transplant list and have been given a choice. Do you want a human organ or an animal organ? Yes, Xenotransplantation is a large medical breakthrough, but it come with a tremendous amount of risk involved. Animal organs are not meant to be in a humans body. Therefore, human organs should be used for people on the donation list instead of Xenotransplantation.
Blood loss will occur when an open surgery is preceded, the doctor need to open the layer of skin one by one. Every time the doctor open a new layer of skin with the scalpel blood will comes out. There’s a lot of risk in preceding an open surgery, because if a person lost too much blood then they will die. Even though sometimes its can be a successful one. One of the solutions to this problem is endoscope.
This is obviously difficult and severe spinal cord injuries are usually so disastrous and permanent because this connection of the nerves is broken. If brain transplants were possible in the future, the identity of the person may change and be more like the identity of the donor of the brain.  This is because it is unlike a normal transplant, such as a transplanted heart, but the brain is where memory, identity and personality are all stored, so the outcomes may be
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
Medication errors are amongst the most common healthcare mistakes and are a frequent source of unfortunate healthcare events in the quality of care. Medication errors lengthen the stay in hospitals, escalate inpatient expenditures, and in the United States cause more than 7,000 deaths yearly. One-third of all medical errors which occur in a hospital are from medication errors. Not all medication errors lead to morbidity or mortality; nonetheless, a relatively elevated prevalence makes the dilemma worth addressing. Each error can cost an estimated $2,000 to $8,750 (Anderson & Townsend, 2015).