However, discharge of the brine produced by the RO desalination process results in many environmental adverse effects, due to the high concentrations of metals and salts. Recovery and removal of elements from RO brine would decrease environmental benefits and have economic gains in the production of valuable metals . Le Dirach et al.  are listed magnesium as element that potentially economically for extraction. 3) Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine and seawater is one of the main sources of lithium production.
Valenzuela et. al. (1995)  has proposed a hydrometallurgical procedure for the separation of molybdenum from Chilean molybdenite concentrate. The molybdenite concentrate was first leached with nitric acid originated from the reaction of NaNO3 and H2SO4, which provided a solid phase, composed of MoO3 and residual solution. Molybdenum was separated with alkylphosphonic acid PC-88A by solvent extraction method, from the leach liquor containing copper, rhenium and iron among other impurities.
(Conversely, miscible liquids are soluble in each other.) The organic compounds would dissolve in extraction solvent and the inorganic impurities would remain dissolved in the water. The mixture will be place in separatory funnel enabling separation of one layer from the other—the lower, denser layer can be drained out of the bottom of the separatory funnel, leaving behind the upper layer.
Chelating agents which are also called as chelants are applied to get rid of heavy metals from the human body in situations of poisoning, overdose or accumulation. These agents bind to metals inside the blood and tissues. These develop complexes known as chelates which are inert chemically and it is quite
Dioxins are primarily by-products or residues from thermal industrial processes (combustion) that involve chlorine, but they can also occur during natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or forest fires. They are undesirable byproducts in a large number of manufacturing processes, such as melting, chlorine bleaching of pulp, and the production of certain herbicides and pesticides. In terms of emissions, it is considered that most of the dioxin released into the environment comes from uncontrolled waste incinerators (solid waste and hospital waste), which are the biggest culprits, with incomplete combustion. There are also large stocks of used industrial oils throughout the world whose longterm preservation and elimination of these materials
Ilyaas Farah 1711-60 1-31-16 Word count: 501 Sulfide Mining should be rejected Sulfide mining has a bad effect on both the economy and the environment. Sulfide mining is the process of removing copper, nickel, and other metals from sulfide ores. Minnesota 's traditional iron ore mining and sulfide mining are two very different types of mining. Sulfide mining has more environmental risks than Minnesota 's traditional iron ore mining. AMD (Acid Mine Drainage) is created from sulfuric acid.
Chromium (Cr) is one of the known environmental toxic pollutants in the world which is from group VIII element of the first transition series and has a hard brittle gray transition metal with atomic number 24 and relative atomic mass 51.99 g/mol. Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil. It can exit in several different forms and the most common forms are chromium, chromium (III) and chromium (IV). The major industrial application of chromium include the processes for making steel, chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning operations, and wood preserving (Guertin, 2004). According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ATSDR, (2012) Chromium can be found in air, soil, and water after release from the manufacture, use, disposal of chromium-based products, and during the manufacturing process.
. Nickel Nickel contains of combination with sulfur and iron ores . this metal are recent and have led to introduction of nickel in steel manufacturing , coin production and electro plating of metal object Biological activity of nickel it has an impotent role in microorganisms and plants . nickel presence in many enzymes can be considered as essential trace element , although some health authorities question this assumption Human exposure nickel has concentrations range from 4 to 80 ppm in soil vary according to geology input . it has concentrations in rivers and lakes range from 0.5 to 6 µg\L .
Used solvents contain contaminants that can be removed by fractional distillation. The recycled solvents have purities suitable for re-use. Fractional distillation is used to separate the crude oil into its various components such as gasoline, kerosene oil, diesel oil, paraffin wax, liberating oil. Fractional distillation is also used for the purification of water. Water contains many dissolved impurities; these can be removed by this process.
One of the most important causes of Nile contamination is discharging of industrial facilities (Mohamed et al., 1998). Factory waste contains heavy metals such as, Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), which cause toxicity. In this essay, the discussion will point to Nile contamination as a controversial issue and highlight some health problems which occur as consequences of using polluted water in Egypt. Likewise, the essay will raise some scientific methods to determine the percentage of heavy metal in water supported by example. Then it will suggest some chemical technical solutions to reduce the percentage of heavy metals in Nile and reuse it again for many purposes.