The tensile strength of the material increases because the subsequent application of tensile stress must nullify the compressive prestress. • This can result in improved structural capacity and serviceability compared to conventionally reinforced concrete. • High-strength tendons are used to produce compression. They are made of high- tensile steels, carbon fibers etc. and consist of threaded bars, single or multiple
The concrete should be used as efficient as possible. Nowadays researches efforts are continuously looking for new, better and efficient construction method. Various theories related to the analysis of structural elements reduced the self-weight of element for a given load- carrying capacity. Structural material optimization can reduce the dead load which reduce the contribution of seismic effect in high rise structures and also very good at the vibration dampers and heat isolation. According to the natural behaviour of the concrete, it is strong in compression and weak in tension.
For this the mold should be made from high strength preferably of hardened steel. Secondly, for better mechanical properties it is advised that the molded items be annealed. Thirdly, mold release agents if required should only be made from fluorine based compounds to avoid stress cracks. Applications Poly (ether sulphone) has a variety of applications in a vast array of fields. The most successful applications are mentioned below.
For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces. Glass : tempered glass is the choice recommended in high rise buildings as opposed to plain glass as it can resist various live loads and would not shatter. Some advantages and disadvantages of the type of materials used are: non corrosive, easy in casting (in situ) plasticity. Disadvantages can be, the cost to construct the dead weight, (weight associated with the structure) and the challenge or difficulty which may be encountered when pouring
(Figure 5). Little material was required to build bridges and they were just as strong as their predecessors, making them reliable and economically efficient (Kostof 596). As the uses of iron and steel expanded, the combination of old building materials such as stone and the new materials of iron and steel allowed for design and construction on a mass scale to reach new lengths in terms of structure, design, and stability. For example, the Eads Bridge in St. Louis, MO uses extremely long, selfsupporting steel arches (Figure 6). The combination of new and old materials allowed these bridges to be much larger and stronger than would
People choose to build things out of steel because it is very durable and strong unlike iron. Steel is durable because it lasts for a long time so you do not have to worry about it rusting. Steel is also strong because it can hold a lot of weight. Because of the durability and strongness of steel the invention of skyscrapers were starting to appear. Steel is strong enough to be used for building structures and big projects.
The H-shaped beams will be more preferable in this case since; the beams will be able to with stand the shear forces and stress exerted by bending and through shear loads. Due to its shape, it is able to provide efficient support at the top and at the bottom. Its however disadvantaged in that, it is not efficient in carrying torsion as there is preference of hollow structures in this case. The beams are made of steel, which is the most ideal material for use. The load exerted on the beams will be caused by; the load from the self weight caused by the deck, loads resulted to by the live loads, weight exerted due to car skidding as well as effect of braking and horizontal loads as a result of temperature and movements such as wind.
In ionic bonding, once the bond has occurred the atoms become stable and they become ions. Ionic bonds in nature are quite strong. Therefore the ionic compounds have high melting points and can be either very hard or brittle. The materials are good insulators, for both electricity and thermal conditions. These characteristics would be seen as strengths of this type of bonding as the compounds which undergo this type of bonding can withstand high temperatures without
The construction methodology is the same with elastomeric bearings; however, the damping is increased by adding carbon block and other fillers. In addition, it has an adequate resistance to service loads. The damping characteristic is in between hysteric and viscous. The energy dissipation is linear and quadratic for hysteric and viscous, respectively. The energy absorption capability help reduced the earthquake energy transmitted to the superstructure.
many studies on rumble strips show a very high benefit/cost ratio which makes them most cost-effective safety treatments available this make shoulder rumble strips most cost-effective than other other safety treatments such as guardrails, culvert end treatments, and slope flattening. and a main department of transportation survey of 50:1 state