Objectives Stainless steel is an alloy widely used in construction projects. It is an alloy of low carbon steel mixed with specific percentage of chromium. It can be commonly found in building and always work with concrete. The advantages of stainless steel are high strength, corrosion resistance and environmental friendly. Then, there are many types of stainless steel and have various physical and chemical properties.
Cold-formed steel Cold-formed steel(CFS) is type of steel fabricated by cold forming process, for common term for products made by rolling or pressing steel into semi-finished or finished goods at relatively low temperature. Its popularity can be attributed to ease of mass production and prefabrication, uniform quality, lightweight designs, economy in transportation and simple erection or installation. CFS has the exceptional environmental advantage of being highly recycled and infinitely recyclable. Moreover, there are several advantages and characteristics of CFS, CFS is easy to handle during construction and transportation because it has components weigh with 30percent to 50percent less than wood counterparts. Steel show highest strength
At first shear walls were used in reinforced concrete buildings to resist wind forces. These came into practice only as late as 1940s. With the introduction of shear walls, concrete construction can be used for tall super structure also. Earlier, tall buildings were made only of steel, as bracings to take lateral wind loads could be easily provided in steel construction technique. However, since recent observations have consistently shown the excellent performance of buildings with shear walls even under seismic forces, such walls are now largely used for all earthquake resistant designs.
Besides that, in order to design structural elements many steps, formulas and calculations are needed based on codes of practice. Therefore, to ease the designing process, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets will be developed in order to carry out the design of structural elements. This spreadsheet can produce a design output faster than manual hand calculations. This final year project is focusing on the comparison of serviceability, limit state, bar anchorage and lap lengths of beam design according to British Standard 8110 and EC 2 using Microsoft Excel. A case study of a single storey reinforced concrete
INTRODUCTION This report mainly highlights the materials that are used in constructions and infrastructures as well as the history and how they are obtained. There are various elements used in building structures. Those materials are used extensively according to their properties and applications. Materials such as iron, zinc, copper, aluminum, brass, timber, and steel are all crucial to the constructions in their own ways due to their unique strengths and characteristics. All these elements are combined together to form an infrastructure.
A Cold form steel strip of length 130mm and width 40mm is connected by a 4.8mm screw, which is modelled as 3D deformable Solid element. Fig 1. Lap joint The material modeling simulates the properties of cold form steel, having a ductile behaviour compared to hot-rolled steel. The material is elastic isotropic of young’s modulus 210000 N/mm2 and poissons ratio 0.3; the stress strain behaviour of steel strip is given in table 1.3D solid screw is assigned with 200000 N/mm2 which has the behaviour of hardened steel and a poisons ratio of
It is difficult to determine which material is the most sustainable between the three construction materials because all of them have different advantages as seen in the body of this chapter. By looking at the comparison between wood, steel and masonry to see witch material is more sustainable one can clearly see that wood has the most green features and will probably be the most eco friendly construction material of the three. The construction material with the second most green features is masonry and with the third most is steel. One can also rate the appropriateness of the construction material green features in a country but will not be included in this study. The best way to go about picking a construction material is to plan ahead because planning can also contribute to an eco friendly
Step 3. Measurement of Nickel plating thickness The nickel plating thicknesses were measured by a gauge for coating thickness (MAKE: Metrix 25 FN). The plating thickness of rod is along the circumference at a regular interval of 45º. This measurement was repeated for the entire length of rod and plating profile was plotted as shown in Figure 3. Step 4. : The microturning was carried out on the electroplated aluminium rod as per the experimental design.
Composite materials Composite materials are materials that are helpful for the human and can be used in the daily life in different areas. Composite materials are used in different rang of industries such as, aircraft industries, automotive industries, medical use and so on. However, composite materials known as materials that made of two or more elements combined together to form composite elements . Composite can form into two different phases known as matrix form and reinforcement, the main difference is that reinforcement phase is stiffer and stronger compared to the matrix one. The aim of combining the elements is to provide unique properties to composite material.
CHAPTER (1) INTRODUCTION 1.1 General The composite concrete structures have been always a topic of major importance in the field of construction. The use of concrete in composite structures may be with steel sections in the form of steel-concrete composite sections, or with concrete cast at different times to form what is called concrete-concrete composite sections which are used in buildings and bridge constructions. Economic considerations indicate the desirability of composite action between the precast and the cast in place elements. Composite behavior, with the slab serving as the flange of T-beam results in horizontal shearing stress at the construction joints. The stresses at this region are very complicated and several trials to represent the behavior in this region have been made.