In lateral canal stenosis as there is involvement of the nerve it results in severe radiculopathy, with muscle weakness, pain and immobility. This results from a series of changes in the components of the central and lateral canal such as ligamentum flavum inflammation, bony spurs, epidural fat deposition and facetal hypertrophy. (1) Management of spinal stenosis includes conservative or surgical treatment. Conservative approach comprises of rest, analgesics, anti inflammatory medications, physical exercises, and weight loss. Surgery is done in patients who have severe pain, disability, neuropathy or malignancy.
Phantom limb syndrome is a neurological disorder that affects amputees and is characterized by phantom sensations that appear to emanate from the missing limb (Rugnetta). The phantom sensations can be painful or nonpainful in nature, so that the individual experiences pain, touch sensations, or changes in temperature (Rugnetta), despite missing the peripheral portions of the spinothalamic pathway and other pathways involved in relaying information to associated regions of the brain, and in particular to the somatosensory cortex. The mechanisms involved in phantom limb syndrome are not fully understood. However, it has been noted that following amputation there is a rewiring of parts of the brain associated with sensation (Purves, Augustine, Fitzpatrick, Hall, LaMantia, & White, 2012), including, “considerable reorganization
1.1 INTRODUCTION Myasthenia Gravis as well as known by the name (MG) is autoimmune neuromuscular disease that caused weakness in the skeletal muscles, the muscle that are used for movement to do activity of daily living. Myasthenia Gravis are caused by the neuromuscular disorder. The neuromuscular disorder for Myasthenia Gravis occurs when communication between nerve cells and muscles becomes impaired. This neuromuscular disorder caused the important muscle to make the contraction movement from occurring, that caused muscle weakness, resulting rapid fatigue of any of the muscles under voluntary control. Symptoms include drooping of one or both eyelids, diplopia and difficulty swallowing, chewing and speaking.
It usually affected the lowest vertebra of the back. It is not easy to detected due to it covered by the skin or spinal tissue. Most of time, it is asymptomatic. 6.Spina bifida aperta - is a vertebral protrusion that contains the meninges or the meninges and spinal cord. It causes CNS defects.
Amblyopia is decreased vision in one or both eyes due to abnormal development of vision. The term amblyopia is medically used when the vision in one of the eyes is reduced because the eye and the brain are not working properly together. The eye itself will typically look normal, but it is not being used properly in the visual process. This is due to the brain favoring the healthy eye, and ignoring what comes in from the eye with Amblyopia. This condition is also sometimes called lazy eye.
Information from the retina leaves the eye through the optic nerve, which leads to the optical chiasm. Here, the ﬁbers from the nasal side of the fovea in each eye cross over to the opposite side of the brain while the others remain on the same side. The result is that the mapping from external visual ﬁelds to the cortex is crossed. Visual information from the left half of the visual ﬁeld (from both the right and the left eyes) goes to the right half of the brain (right hemisphere), whereas all the information from the right visual ﬁeld goes to the left hemisphere. The vertical meridian representation of the two hemiﬁelds is joined via a large ﬁber system called the corpus callosum.
The innermost lamina contain second order neurons that transmit to the locus coeruleus, hypothalamus and amygdala in the brain. Some lamina also contain inhibitory interneurons which prevent signals from transmitting further along the pathway. The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is a complex anatomical structure which needs further explanation, as this is where one of the mechanisms of chronic pain can develop. As mentioned, different types of nerve fibres synapse in the laminae. A-delta and C fibres synapse with second order neurons that transmit to the thalamus and then on to the somatosensory cortex, cingulate
Receding Gums Another sign of a gum problem is if your gums have started to pull away from your teeth. You’ll notice a receding of the gum tissue. This can be painful and very sensitive to the touch, often times includes bad breath and bad tastes. The gums can recede to the point of exposing the roots, allowing infections to easily progress. If it hurts to chew and your mouth is tender, you might have a gum problem.