One of the most distinctive features of H.pylori is the genetic diversity between clinical isolates obtained from different patient populations. Most H. polyri isolates can be discriminated from others by DNA profiling or sequencing of corresponding genes due to mainly a high degree of sequence divergence between orthologs (3-5%).H.Pylori infestation is followed by continuous gastric inflammation in virtually all individuals. Worldwide, H.pylori-induced gastritis
In this more common form — called non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) — new blood vessels aren't growing (proliferating). When one has non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, the walls of the blood vessels in retina weaken. Tiny bulges (microaneurysms) protrude from the vessel walls of the smaller vessels, sometimes leaking fluid and blood into the retina. Larger retinal vessels can begin to dilate and become irregular in diameter, as well. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy can progress from mild to severe, as more blood vessels become blocked.
The mostly chromosome abnormalities have been found because of cystic hygroma, limb abnormalities, omphalocele, duodenal stenosis, hydrocephalus and malformations of the face. (thompson, 1986) 3.2.Biochemical Assays for Metabolic Diseases: More than 100 metabolic disorders can be diagnosed prenatally in chorionic villus tissue or cultured amniotic fluid cells, and a few rare conditions can even be identified directly by assay of a substances in amniotic fluid. The metabolic disorders diagnosed by enzyme assay in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic fluid
Cyclosporine Transplantation is the act of transferring cells, tissues, or organs from one site to another. The malfunction of an organ system can be corrected with transplantation of an organ (eg, kidney, liver, heart, lung, or pancreas) from a donor. However, the immune system remains the most formidable barrier to transplantation as a routine medical treatment. As the immune system is responsible for the rejection of grafts understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system reject the graft helps in the treatment and development of drugs and ways that insure the success of the transplantation. Types of Grafts: The degree of immune response to a graft depends partly on the degree of genetic disparity between the grafted organ and
Nowadays endoluminal approach is applied. It uses detachable silicone balloons, self-expanding umbrellas and foam plugs. The risks of neck and tracheal dissection and laryngeal nerve injury are avoided by using this method. Also fetal tumors, like sacrococcygeal teratoma and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) of the lung, were previously removed with open fetal surgery, but currently minimal access instruments are used to disturb blood flow or to lyse fetal tumors to slow their growth. Obstructive uropathy occurs rather frequently (1 in 1000 live births).
INTRODUCTION AKI is a syndrome of rapid loss of kidney function and oliguria, which is associated with adverse patient outcomes. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a functional or structural abnormality of the kidney as determined by blood, urine or tissue tests or by imaging studies.AKI is estimated to occur in up to 15% of hospitalized patients and up to 60% of critically ill patients. Despite advances in health care, the incidence of AKI is increasing in both developed and developing countries which is associated with severe psychological and financial trauma (1). The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) has increased over the past few decades and the reported incidence of AKI in different regions of the world is quite variable. In
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy allows earlier oral intake, shortens hospital stay, enhances earlier return to normal activity , minimal postoperative pain, and improves cosmesis over open cholecystectomy. Thus, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has continued to gain widespread clinical approval, and it is now the standard procedure for benign diseases of the gallbladder; However, there is still a substantial percent of patients in whom Laparoscopic cholecystectomy cannot be successfully done and for whom conversion to open surgery is required. A previous abdominal surgery has been reported as a relative contraindication to Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  Previous abdominal surgery particularly is associated with difficult insertion of the initial trocar and obtaining adequate exposure to the gallbladder. The potential risk for injury of organs adherent to the abdominal wall during Veress needle or trocar insertion as well as the necessity for adhesiolysis and its attendant complications are the two major specific problems limiting surgeons from acting laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with previous abdominal
Radiation therapy is not necessarily better than chemotherapy or surgery, as it has both benefits and risks. Instead, choosing the right treatment depends on the case of each individual patient. Chemotherapy, which utilizes drugs delivered to the entire body, prevents the cancer cells from spreading. On the other hand, surgery and radiation therapy target one specific area. Often times, patients will undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before getting surgery to remove it entirely.
The transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has extended in recent years, and greatly improved the quality of, hundreds of thousands of lives. As a result of increased demand of organ donation and the shortage of available organs, many countries developed a set of regulations and procedures for organ donation and transplantation. According to WHO and the directory of the regulation of organ transplantation in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, cells, tissues and organs may be removed from deceased and living persons for the purpose of transplantation, only according to the following Guiding Principles: • Only authorized specialized physicians in centers authorized by the ministry of health in GCC countries can perform organ transplantation