According to Horowitz (1986: 144), the approach “creates a classroom situation that bears little resemblance to the situation in which (students’ writing) will eventually be exercised” (p.144). He goes on to suggest that a process orientation ignores certain types of important academic writing tasks( particularly essay exams) and that what he sees as two basic tenets of the process approach- “content determines form” and “good writing is involved writing”- do not necessarily hold true in many academic contexts. In essence, he asserts that the process approach overemphasizes the individual’s psychological functioning and neglects the socio-cultural context, that is, the realities of academia- that, in fact, the process approach operates in a socio-cultural
Dr. Kemp and Professor Wood (2013) stated that the tendency to omit punctuation and capitalization in text messages linked to a lower performance on the standardized test of grammatical understanding and a specially constructed measure of sensitivity to grammar in written words. Early studies established that neglecting the basic rules of the English language may lead to miscommunication. However, research proves that even though students commit grammar lapses, people still seem to understand the message that is being
Error Analysis One of the most inhibition factors from the students in learning a foreign language especially in written and oral performance are making mistakes and errors. The making of errors is shows that the students have not mastered the rules of the language being learned. Students may commit grammatical mistakes and error when they miscomprehend what is taught and explained by the teacher. To cope with this problem, one of the technique widely used by the researcher is error analysis. Error Analysis (EA) as a technique for identifying, classifying, and systematically interpreting the unacceptable forms of a language in the production data of someone learning a second or foreign language (Richard & Smith, 2002).
Teachers should incorporate a combination of direct instruction and the constructivist approach when teaching reading. This essay will discuss six elements of teaching students to read including oral language, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency, and ways in which teachers can deliver instruction using a balanced approach. A balanced approach to teaching reading involves explicit phonics instruction as well as world view. Traditionally students were introduced to reading with an emphasis on phonics. McBride-Chang (2004) recognised that this bottom-up approach resulted in students who are more likely to lose interest in reading due to the limited vocabulary and repetitiveness of texts they read (p.120).
Though, earlier research into reading assessment used the product approach, “product approaches to reading have been unfashionable in recent years as research efforts have concentrated on understanding the reading process, and as teachers of reading have endeavoured to improve the way in which their students approach text” (Alderson, 2005, p.5). The product approach has been criticized as it is difficult to address the variation in the product and to measure the product using valid and reliable measures (Alderson, 2005). Consequently, though not as an alternative but as a complementary approach, the process approach to reading assessment gained significance. However, the process approach to reading assessment is quite challenging since “the process is likely to be dynamic, variable, and different for the same reader on the same text at a different time or with a different purpose in reading” (Alderson, 2005, p.3). In spite of the limitations, the process approach offers noteworthy data about how the reader, the text and the context interact and impact the construction of meaning.
This means that fewer assessments can be gathered so if they are not carefully devised fewer learning goals will be assessed at which can reduce content validity. A research done by (Chan, Y. F., & Gurnam, K. S, 2010) on portfolio assessment, some students commented it was a sheer waste of time whilst others stressed they did not know what to write as they were most of the time repeating the same thing. Another weakness of performance assessment is hard to assess reliability, which can lead to inaccuracy and unfair evaluation. Also, the teachers’ knowledge and expertise in a subject matter is vital and may influence negatively upon the students’ learning. Are the teachers experienced and trained enough to adequately apply authentic performance assessment with their students?
To illustrate, while introducing or practicing the new information, let’s say Passive Voices, students may face some mistakes which are not about the mechanics of Passive Voice structure, but another off topic grammatical structure, such as, let’s say Conditionals. At this point, teacher ignores such mistakes not to let the students move out of the topic. However, it means that the practice contexts can be a bit forced. In addition, Production stage, which is meant to be the most efficient stage for language transference is even narrow as well, because students are monitored only from the point of the main focus of the lesson. In another saying, production activities are designed to reproduce language samples offered in Presentation and Production stages.
Prepositions are considered to be tricky and challenging not only for the non –native speakers but also to the language teachers. Therefore they are normally avoided to be discussed in classrooms. The learners rely on the literal connotations rather understanding the underlying logic of the prepositions English language offers (Sotiloye 2015). Tyler in his book ‘Cognitive Linguistic and Second Language Learning’ has presented an innovative and empirical research to understand the spirit of English prepositions. He explains that prepositions describe relationship between two objects, in which one is Focus element and the other is Grounding element.
It found that students’ past and present experiences of learn- ing to read and being a reader inﬂuenced their perceptions of what reading is and of what it means to teach reading. As a teacher educator, I am not able to give students long experience of seeing children becoming readers, but I am able to give them richer experiences of reading in personally and culturally rele- vant contexts. Calderhead and Sharrock (1997) identiﬁed the tensions they claimed existed then in the world of teacher education. They saw a world full of tensions: the ten- sion between theory and practice, content and process, gatekeeping and facilitating, personal and professional development, survival and reﬂection, support and chal- lenge and reproduction and innovation. It could be argued that in the ﬁrst decade of the twenty-ﬁrst century more tensions evolved: between centralised control and professional judgement and between holistic development and quantiﬁable measured standards.
The use of CLT for some texts on the meaning and classroom has exposed the individual texts propose accounts envelop one or more aspect of CLT approach to teaching and not entirely deal with the useful desires of teacher to comprehend and the use of the approach in classroom. Although like that, it not ensure the reading text would be comprehensive treatment of these issue. In the feature, it will be a reason for the teacher in have supposedly uncomprehending the communicative approach to teaching well enough that appeared in literature (Mangubhai, Marland, Dashwood and Son, 2007). Communicative language (CL) classroom provide with direct respond correction. The teacher practice quit when asks their pupils if have any question.