A fractured bone is immobilized by applying opposing force at both ends of the injured area, using an equal amount of traction and counter traction. Weight provides the traction pull needed or the pull is achieved by positioning the individual’s body weight appropriately. Traction is a form of closed reduction and is sometimes used as an alternative to surgery. Since it restricts movement of the affected limb or body part, it may confine a person to bed rest for an extended period of time. A person may need open reduction if there is an open, severe, or comminuted fracture.
Just like shoulder impingements, tears are caused by the wearing down of the muscles of rotator cuffs overtime, or by acute traumas. If you are currently experiencing a rotator cuff injury, the exercises outlined below will help you overcome the pain and heal you. These workouts are the best exercise for rotator cuff. The Best Exercises for Rotator Cuff
Treat overuse injuries early to prevent chronic problems. Knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of knee pain. The risk increases with age. Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis involving degeneration of the cartilage [3,4]. By determining the medical history of a patient and comparing it to the patient's current symptoms a medical professional can determine the source of the knee pain.
When the tendon is overused chronically without given adequate time to heal, tendinosis known as Jumper’s Knee can occur in response to the damage. Conventionally, jumper’s knee can be noted as a patellofemoral pain syndrome. The teno-osseous junctions, where the attachments of the quadriceps tendon and patellar tendon occur, are the impacted areas under this condition. The described patellar pain affects the quadriceps tendon and patellar tendon inserted either into the tibial tuberosity or the patella (Curwin and Stanish, 1984). Thus, by definition, histologically, jumper’s knee
The third group would involve a deep abrasion with loss of skin, subcutaneous cover and tendon substance. The fourth group involves a few features such as transepiphyseal plate fracture in children, hyperflexion injury with fracture of articulatng surface of less than half and hyperextension injury with fracture of articulating surface more than half along with early or late volar subluxation of the distal phalanx (Parvizi & Kim, 2010, p.286). Other signs and symptoms of mallet finger would be a pop or rip sensation felt in the affected finger during time of injury. Immediately after injury, pain can be felt when the injured finger is moved. The individual might also find passive movement of the finger possible but it is difficult to straighten the bent finger at the last joint with their own strength.
Palpation of the lumbar spine revealed hypertonic spasms along the lumbar paraspinal muscles bilaterally. Sensation is decreased to sharp at the thigh, foot at L4, L5, and S1 on the right. Lumbar spine range of motion is restricted due pain and stiffness on flexion, extension and left lateral bending. Straight leg raise is positive on the right. Range of motion of the left wrist is restricted on flexion and extension due to pain.
The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle.
Injury to the sciatic nerve results in sciatica, pain that may extend from the buttock down the posterior and lateral aspect of the leg and the lateral aspect of the foot” (1). Sciatic pain has a range, “from a mild ache to a sharp, burning sensation or excruciating pain. Sometimes it can feel like a jolt or electric shock. It can be worse when you cough or sneeze, and prolonged sitting can aggravate symptoms. Usually only one side of your body is affected” (2).
There are three F’s on how fractures happen. The first one is fall the way you fall or get injured. The second f is force, the force and direction of the fall. And the final F is fragility, the fragility of the bone that takes the impact. The prevention and treatment of fractures is important to overall health, but there are various treatments available of a fracture.
An open fracture is a broken bone that penetrates the skin. Compared to a broken bone that does not pierce the skin (a closed fracture), an open fracture increases your risk for infection. Therefore, immediate treatment is necessary. This often requires an operation to clean the affected area to prevent infection. Furthermore,