1. Qualitative: Qualitative forecasting methods are basically more subjective and based on human own judgment and experience. It is very helpful when there is very little historical data available about the demand. Human own; judgment, intuition, survey and past knowledge are used in order to do forecast for future demand. This method can be very effective when dealing with new product or new technologies 2.
Soft computing plays an important role in the conception & design of the systems whose machine IQ is much higher than that of the system designed by the conventional method. Fuzzy logic is all about the relative importance of precision, how important is it to be exactly correct when a rough answer will do. Fuzzy logic is an emerging area of research because it does a good job of trading off between significance & precession. Fuzzy is something that humans have been managing for a very long time. Fuzzy logic is the convenient way for mapping of input space to the output space which is starting point of everything.
Therefore, the material is case hardened, which gives increased surface hardness combined with residual compressive stresses present at the surface. It should be noted that although the hardness and the residual stresses from heat treatment are results of the same process, the material hardness is only dependent on the local material state whereas the residual stress distribution is dependent on the geometry through the equilibrium of expanded and unaffected material. An increasing resistance against surface fatigue with hardness was documented already by Way in 1935. It was also found that the spalls became smaller for a hardened
Following the same approach of Grassl et al. , the softening modulus is adjusted with the overall element size h to overcome the mesh-dependency of the constitutive law with strain softening. Accordingly, the strain thresholds E1 and E2 are replaced with W1 and W2, respectively. W1 and W2 are displacement thresholds and can be calculated using the tensile fracture energy with G. By setting the inelastic strain to E1=0, the tensile damage variable can be calculated by solving the following
Small overload region and large fatigue region associated with multiple ratchet marks on the fracture surface indicates that the load was light but there were high stress concentration at the crack initiated region. 2. Chemical Analysis revealed that the pull rod material conformed to EN 10083-2 grade 30CrNiMo8, as specified by the customer. 3. Unbroken dendritic structure resulted in segregation at inter- dendritic region and other anomalies such as blow holes, inclusions resulted in hardness difference across the cross section of pull rod.
The study of behavior of RC beam column joints under seismic loading and endeavors for predicting the joint shear strength has started long back [Hanson and Connor, 1967 as reported by Park and Pauley, 1975], however, the collapse of many RC buildings in recent past earthquakes has been attributed to failure of beam-column joints. The prediction of accurate joint shear strength is difficult task since it depends on complex interactions of various parameters. Many researchers have proposed analytical models for predicting joint shear strength; however, theses analytical models are generally based on limited set of experimental results. From the literature, the crucial parameters affecting the joint shear strength have been identified as beam
(2) In order to improve the magnetic field gradient, we must choose the high magnetic saturation of the magnetic saturation of the magnetic media, the choice of poly magnetic media has certain technical difficulties, and increase the cost of running. (3) High cost of magnetic species, recycling more difficult. The development of practical and inexpensive is a problem that must be considered in the further development of magnetic separation technology. Although magnetic separation technology is a simple and feasible and efficient water treatment technology, due to the technical difficulties and limitations to be overcome. Therefore, it is widely used in practical applications.
Although the rock fails under tensile stress, the cracks are formed gradually by crack extension and propagation. Stress concentration is the very important part in the control direction of propagation (Jiag, 1996). The explosion load exerted at the weak planes such as joints and bedding planes in sharply attenuates and does not break rock masses. These weak planes may produce the internal damage of rock masses and reduce their load-bearing capacity and stability. In surface blasting operation, the effect of blasting area have been difficult and yet not solved (Zang and Chang, 1999).
H, and Shihavuddin, A. Compound local binary pattern robust, high discriminate ability Sensitivity to noise Varghese, A, Varghese, R. R, Balakrishnan, K, and Paul J.S Mod-LBP Enhance accuracy,better descriptor. Complexity Table 6.1 Comparison of LGS, LBP, CLBP, Mod-LBP 7. FUTURE SCOPE 3D-LBP which can be used for three dimensional description of pixels which can improve efficiency. It is one of the best performing texture descriptors and it has been widely used in various applications.
Stainless steel is a widely used and it is an inexpensive material in most industrial fields. Dissimilar joints can provide cost savings due to less use of one of the components. They also are capable of offering complex function in engineering applications. Therefore, there are urgent needs to join Ti