Radiation therapy is not necessarily better than chemotherapy or surgery, as it has both benefits and risks. Instead, choosing the right treatment depends on the case of each individual patient. Chemotherapy, which utilizes drugs delivered to the entire body, prevents the cancer cells from spreading. On the other hand, surgery and radiation therapy target one specific area. Often times, patients will undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before getting surgery to remove it entirely.
Abstract — Brain magnetic resonance (MR) segmentation algorithms are critical to analyze tissues and diagnose edema and tumor in a quantitative way. The primary aim of brain image segmentation is to partition a given brain image into different regions representing anatomical structures. In this paper, we present a new effective segmentation algorithm that segments brain MR images into tumor, edema, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The detection of the healthy tissues and the diseased tissues are performed for examining the change caused by the spread of tumor and edema on healthy tissues is very important for treatment planning. We developed an algorithm for skull stripping before the segmentation process.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of CT scan in diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma taking histopathology as the gold standard. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Bronchogenic Carcinoma All those patients who had a pulmonary lesion on X ray along with history of symptoms like hemoptysis, weight loss, and recurrent pleural effusion etc. will be taken as possible cases of bronchogenic carcinoma. Diagnostic Accuracy of the investigation will be assessed via sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT scan taking histopathology findings as true negative or positive. MATERIALS AND
Mammography is specialized medical imaging examination that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. It uses x-rays to take images of the breast from different angles. Doctors use a mammography exam, called a mammogram to look for early signs of breast cancer which helps in the early discovery and diagnosis of breast diseases. Regular mammograms are the best assessments doctors have to catch breast cancer early, sometimes up to three years before it can be felt. (ACR), 2018) .Breast screening is an effective way of detecting breast cancer, often at a very early stage, when there are no outward signs.
The patient was concelled and requested for family screening. For ocular symptoms we immediately performed laser photocoagulation to all the heamangioblastomas in four quadrants, and feeder vessels were successfully cauterized. In addition intravitreal bevacizumab was administered and subsequent injections were scheduled, which not only subsided macular edema as shown in fig 3 but also improved her vision to 6/9. Discussion: It is a rare disorder consisting of benign tumors in multi-organ systems which haspotential for malignant transformation. In the presence of a positive family history, VHL disease can be diagnosed clinically in a patient with at least one typical VHL tumor.
The important tests to be done, along with pedigree are the following: A Complete Blood Count along with all red cell indices. An HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) and IEF (Isoelectric focussing - electrophoresis) are also done. A confirmatory testing is performed of all results where abnormal haemoglobin is detected, on the original blood sample using a different technique from the screening test. State the major ethical and policy issues in medical genetics. Medical genetics has come to be accepted as a boon to this phase of the Earth, but it has its disadvantages and controversies.
The fact that the cells may come from embryos is not an objection, because the embryos are going to die anyway.” (Stephen Hawking) There are multiple pros and cons to stem cell research. Some pros might be the innovative idea about stem cell research which is primarily due to the medical benefits in areas of regenerative medicine and therapeutic cloning. Stem cells provide huge potential for finding treatments and cures to a vast array of diseases including different cancers, diabetes, spinal cord injuries, Alzheimer's, MS, Huntington's, Parkinson's and more. There is endless potential for scientists to learn about human growth and cell development from studying stem cells. Some cons might be that the stem cells primarily come from terminated pregnancy.
The surgery is associated with many avoidable complications and hence requires a serious and cautious approach .The frequency of bile duct injury remains fairly constant .The seriousness of this complication relates in part of problems of biliary fistula and uncontrolled sepsis and in part to the technical difficulties of successful repair of bile duct injuries. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has now replaced open cholecystectomy as the first-choice of treatment for gallstones unless there are contraindications to the laparoscopic approach. Sometimes a laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be converted to an open cholecystectomy for technical reasons or safety. Complications associated with cholecystectomy are bile duct injuries, bile leak from accessory bile ducts or due to clip displacement from the cystic duct, retained stones in the common bile duct, perforation of gallbladder, bleeding from liver, cystic or hepatic artery, subphrenic abscess and peritonitis. Bile duct injuries are important because they are preventable, but once they occur, they may be associated with considerable morbidity and
Grounds breaking scientific advances require complex and rigorous testing and investigation in laboratories and clinics. It is through research that we get all the possible answers about the safety and effectiveness of a new drug or a new therapy. Clinical trials are a branch from the research that helps answering the question about safety and benefits of a new intervention. Clinical trials should have more support from the government and the society since its main focus is to improve human health and his well-being leading eventually to the progress of the medical field and the economy of the country. When it comes to researches involving human subjects, grisly thoughts comes to mind remembering the unethical handling of human subjects participating
of radiology is to obtain images which are adequate for the clinical purpose with minimum radiation dose to the patient. If optimum performance is to be achieved, assessment of image quality must be made to balance against patient dose. X-rays are known to cause malignancies, skin damage and other side effects and therefore are potentially dangerous. It is therefore essential and mandatory to reduce the radiation dose to patients in diagnostic radiology to the barest minimum (Watkinson, Moore’s., 1984). Radiographers are technologist who create and analyze the x-ray image.