Apart from the traditional public administration collecting taxes and providing services is different, the new public management advocates that the managers can and should be given significant authority and discretion to decision making rather than implement the policy in public administration by following rule. That mean the government should separate the management and the concrete operation. To fulfill regulation and enforcement of the fulfilling of legal duties, the application of administrative supervision tools, the imposition and execution of sanctions within the limits of administrative authority etc. The New Public Management believe that government services should be based on client or market orientation. Unlike the TPA that the government above the community with the rigid bureaucracy, the public sector should be the responsibility of the "entrepreneur", the citizen is its "client " or "customer”.
What is New Public Management(NPM): New Public Management(NPM) is abroad term that applies to two sorts of reforms,the use of market and quasi market mechanism to govern individual and organization and the use of management method include public sector organization.Mongkol has defined NPM as”a set of particular management approaches and techniques which are mainly borrowed from the private sector and applied in the public sector. Emergence of New Public Management: Traditional public administration contributed to many countries around the world up to the end of the 1960s. However, by the 1970s, there were calls for introducing a new management system based on market orientation. The need for such a management system was seen in the increasing number of harsh criticisms that showed that traditional public administration was no longer suitable, and thus should be replaced. Some of these criticisms of traditional models of administration included: large scale government resulting in overconsumption of resources; government involvement in too many activities; widespread bureaucracy; high rates of inflation; the absence of separation between policy and administration; the absence of rational decision making; and disregard for citizens’ satisfaction.
A. Introduction Traditional management was established in the late 1900’s, after the industrial revolution swept world. Large factories were built using huge numbers of workers on production lines working with machines rather than the early skilled crafts men and lowered the price of the products produced. With high numbers of employees, there was a demand for a better method of management to control, plan, organise and lead the workers. Without an efficient method the revolution faced a threat of collapse as high volumes of workers were forced to work long, tiring hours at a low rate of pay.
NPM reforms calls for an intra-organizational value change in the public sector. Public personnel, senior public officials and public managers are supposed to perform more strongly with the standards and norms that are acceptable in private sector organizations See (Vigoda-Gadot & Meiri, 2008). The content of public management reforms draws attention towards a variety of values that require to be improvise during the process of change. For instance, NPM put forward the idea of greater flexibility in organizational structures, a better flow of information, bridge the gap between the bureaucratic structure and general public, higher standards of service quality, the development of specific performance measurements strategies, a culture of measuring up of systems and processes and increased accountability (Moon & deLeon, 2001), most importantly responsiveness to citizens is a noteworthy aspect in NPM (Vigoda, 2000) transparency (Ezzamel et al., 2004; Piotrowski & Rosenbloom, 2002), innovativeness and reinvention (Osborne & Gaebler, 1993; Moon, 1999) and a shift towards goal orientation
al., 2013, 20). It wasn’t, however, until the development of new technology and the rise of the Industrial Revolution at the end of the eighteenth century that management techniques and principles were formerly studied and developed. As the size of these industrial organizations and factories grew increasingly in size and complexity, leaders sought the best methods to run these organizations efficiently and
Those are some formal examples to management theory and below topics will be discussed about the several formal approaches to management theory. (www.historyofmanagement.com) 6 | P a g e 3.1. Classical Approach (1800-1920) Classical approach of management declares that the body of management thoughts based on the belief that employees have only economical and physical needs and the social needs and need for job satisfaction either does not exist or are unimportant. So this can be gained by management theoretical research to improve the management art which is an essential requirement. The qualities of managers can be sharpened by on the job training and formal education in business schools to develop them and also according to the managers’ experiences in several business organizations, the principles or the guidelines can be originated.
The scientific management theory is being considered as a continuous improvement even in the 21st century. The scientific management theory is used by managers to improve efficiency and productivity. Managers analyze the basic tasks that must be done, use time and motion studies to eliminate wasted motions, hire the best qualified workers for the job, train them in a proper manner and also paying wage incentives for the increased output. Scientific management encouraged managers to seek the “one best way” to complete a task. (Stoner, Yetton ,Craig, & Johnston, 1994).
The aim of this paper is to implement effective financial management. This review planned to comprehend the procedure of budgetary control as an instrument for advancing first administration and open use management in the Municipality. Through the information got and prepared for precisely chose polls finished by 30 respondents the key point of the review has being figured it out. The study used the qualitative method by doing the interview with participants of this study. A literature review shows that NLM financial staff ought to go to persistent workshops on PFMA 1 of 1999 (as corrected by Act 29 of 1999) and Treasury Regulation, MFMA no 56 of 2003 and other pertinent financial directions.
This chapter will discuss literature related to the strategic management and public relations, the Two-Way Symmetrical Model in the Excellent Theory of public relations, the emergence of new roles of public relations as well as analyzing and discussing the integrated marketing communication approach that could be applied by public relations practitioners to be effective and remain relevant in government organizations as well as industries. The Excellence Study There are many studies that have been conducted over the years to identify and justify the need to put public relations in strategic management process of an organization. Many evidences have unearthed the needs (Grunig & Hunt, 1984; Cutlip, Center & Broom, 1994; Drobis, 1997-1998),
Literature Review The growing awareness of organisations of the need to have information systems for management purposes is related to their own need to coexist in a permanently changing environment, not only physically but also technologically, socially and financially. There are just three works in the first category, because their main topic is the development of the organizational structure in multinational corporations, so they do not strictly deal with the design of management control. From the literature on accounting and business performance management we have basically drawn a systemic approach to performance measurement. According to this standpoint, in the design of a PMS a first fundamental step consists in clearly identifying the measurement objectives, i.e. the specific aims for which the system is designed and implemented.