People, processes, management practices, and products should improve continually. Masaaki Imai gives an overview of the concept that is summarized in the following paragraphs: Kaizen value system The underlying value system of kaizen can be summarized as continual improvement of all things, at all levels, at all time, forever. All of the strategies for achieving this fall under kaizen. Executive managers, middle managers, supervisors, and line employees all play key roles in implementing kaizen. Role of executive management Executive managers are responsible for establishing kaizen as the overriding corporate strategy and communication this commitment to all levels of the organization, allocating the resources necessary for kaizen to work, establishing appropriate policies, ensuring full deployment of kaizen policies, and establishing systems, procedures, and structures that promote kaizen.
A strategic orientation will enable the firm’s proper adaptation to its environment. The Strategic Orientation term as used by practitioners reflects the strategic directions implemented by a firm to guide its activities towards continual superior performance (Gao et al., 2007).Strategic Orientation focuses on the way a firm adapts to and interacts with its external environments (Zhou and Li 2010). Strategic Orientation has also been described as strategic fit, Strategic readiness, strategic thrust, and strategic choice (Morgan and Strong 2003). The term of strategy is defined as “the basic long term goals and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of actions and the allocation of resources necessary for executing these goals” (Chandler,
Task 4: Teamwork in the organisations 4.1: Groups and group behaviour Some amount of traditional diversity and functional diversity is necessary for the group or team to perform. However, environment in which the group of or team of employees perform, must be considered whilst applying the motivation theories in practice. In addition to this, there must be an assumption that the group members have moderate difference in the level of the ability and skills according to the Kohler effect (Witte & Davis, 2013). In CAPCO, employees already have ability and skills to perform, which is checked at the time of recruitment and selection procedure. However, CAPCO offers skill enhancement for employees like ATP, classroom trainings and expert guidance too (case studay).
So in that organization a human resource professional in a top management will be able to map training and development programs which is required to fulfil the objective of the organization that is align their supply chain practices with the objective. So this functional diversity will be a result in quick implementation of the strategic plans. So the functional heterogeneity of a top
Performance Management Performance management according to --- is a function that that embraces activities such as articulated goal setting, uninterrupted progress reassessment, regular communication and feedback, as well as coaching for better performance. Likewise, it involves execution of employee development plans and rewarding accomplishments. In other words, performance management focuses on improving employee performance along with effort via a process that supports employees to get personal and professional fulfilment by a feel of purposeful contribution. In organisations, management is responsible for meeting organisational objectives through the involvement of others; through evaluating the performance of systems and human resources.
Literature related to organizational commitment and human resource theory identified that if proper training facilities are provided to the employees of the organization, it may create a positive employee attitude and commitment with the organization. So, training-focused Human Resource practices have association with higher innovative performance of the organization (Beugelsdijk, 2008). If a high level of participation of the employees is maintain, it would create the environment, which motivate the human capital to bring the innovative ideas and exchange their expertise in the ongoing innovation process which would be helpful to maximize the innovative outcomes (Chen & Huang, 2009). Husiled (1995) examined that the proper education and development in skills of employees have a significant impact on the personnel productivity of employees and the sort-term and long-term goals of the organization. Michie and Quinn (2001) explained the relationships between United Kingdom firms’ use of flexible work practices in the organization and organizational performance and argued that low levels of training have negative impact on the organizational performance.
There are a number of distinct approaches to choose from, each of which is more or less appropriate in different circumstances. As a result most employers use a wide variety of different recruitment methods at different times. In many situations there is also a good case for using different methods in combination when looking to fill the same vacancy. Stages of human resource planning A process through which an organisation anticipates future business and environmental forces is human resource planning. It assesses the right employee requirement for future period of time.
Conclusion It can be concluded that various human resource management models and theories can be used in organisations based on the various outcomes the HR department expects. With that in mind HR managers need to be aware of which model will increase commitment and organisational performance. The approach also needs to be considered depending on what the organisation wants to achieve. This essay has shown that the Harvard model, Michigan model and Guest model all have different ways of improving or increasing employee commitment and organisational
The employee must at all times be informed of the performance expected of them. The evaluation process must set out goal and objective setting and the overall strategy of the company. Elements of key performance indicators Measurement – All targets set by the company should be adequately assessed by the company to determine actual performance. Feedback – On a continual basis, up to date honest and constructive criticism should be given back to the employee on their performance and progress. Positive Reinforcement – By giving positive constructive criticism, we can empower staff to better results by acknowledging their accomplishments and seeking out improvements in work quality.
Roland Benjamin explained that "Performance appraisal determines who shall receive merit increases, counsels employees on their improvement, determines training needs and promotability, and identifies those who should be transferred. Moreover, it improves employee job performance, encourages employees to express their views or to seek clarification on job duties, broadens their outlook, capacity and potential, promotes a more effective utilisation of manpower and improves placement, facilitates selection, reward and promotion of the best qualified employee, prevents grievances, and increases the analytical abilities of