As the direct gene transfer method has the advantage of simplicity, however due to the over simplified strategy, this method does not allow for advanced manipulation and control over the therapeutic gene. At times the gene that is transferred remains non-integrated with the patient’s chromosome, hence just persisting in the targeted tissues. Another drawback is that there is not always easy access to the targeted tissue or organ. Whereas the second method of using living cells have the bigger advantage of advanced manipulation of the therapeutic genes as they are altered in-vitro rather than in-vivo, where it cannot be controlled. One of the types of living cells that can be used are stem cells, which have the ability to localize to certain parts of the human body hence is useful in applying the therapeutic gene localized specificity
The principle of chemotherapy is that by using of chemotherapeutic agents or drugs, cancer cells can be removed. These drugs or chemotherapeutic agents act at the cancer cells and controlled the process of cell mitosis but they can produce toxicity.1 1.2 Cell Cycle The series of events in which one cell undergoes in process of division and accomplished in an individual called cell cycle. There are number of phases in cell
Tumors of the pituitary gland are mostly benign adenomas that remain within the pituitary gland and do no metastasize, but cause symptoms due to hormone production (if they cause hormone production) and the mass effect of the tumor. Most pituitary gland tumors may not require treatment, but if the tumor is compressing the optic nerve, then surgery is necessary. There are two main surgical approaches: an endoscopic trans-nasal trans-sphenoidal (ETNTS) method and a trans-cranial
Although this is a simple technique, it cannot detect apoptotic cells in early stages and the technique needs to be supplemented with other methods of detection. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is considered as the gold standard to confirm apoptosis. TEM can detect apoptotic bodies, phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies and nuclear fragmentation among other changes. The main disadvantages of this method include the cost, time required for detection and the low throughput. 2.
There is an application of nuclear magnetic resonance that is more familiar to the public which is called magnetic resonance imaging. MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique and it does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation which is harmful to patients. Using a magnetic field and pulses of radio frequency to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body which is usually for medical diagnosis or research settings; Lauterbur was the first one to demonstrate MRI and after that Mansfield had improved the resolution and speed of MRI images. Diagnostic imaging plays a crucial role in confirming the diagnosis of infection no matter in musculoskeletal, lungs or other organs and determining the severity and extent of
Incorporating the expert’s role in the detection of the tumor helps in enhancing the accuracy of detection. The segmented tumor and the contour of the breast are mapped in two orthogonal planes. They are so adjusted that the tumors from the two views coincide. The contours of the breast are then used for reconstructing it in 3D with triangular mesh. The tumor is represented in 3D by using a bounded volume box of shapes ellipsoid, sphere.
Skin cancer is a very dangerous disease, but if you are careful and know your facts, it can be easily avoided. During this speech, I will tell you about Skin cancer, what it is, why it is so dangerous, and how to prevent it. To start, what exactly is skin cancer? According to The Skin Cancer Foundation, “Skin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells.” Skin cancer often develops because the skin was exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the sun or tanning beds, and it normally shows up in an irregular spot or mole on the skin. Some types of skin cancer do not grow or spread, so therefore do are not “staged”, but for the ones that do, stage 0 is when the skin cancer cells are strictly in the epidermis.
Since using chlorine in disinfection process showed its disadvantages in developed countries, it should not be practiced in developing countries because they will eventually face the increase in mortality caused by DBPs.7 One of the newest methods for disinfection is photocatalytic processes. Recently, the application of these technologies in water treatment demonstrated an exciting opportunity to find a cheap, environmentally friendly, and sustainable treatment technology.8 By using photocatalysts such as TiO2 and fullerenes, in the presence of UV irradiation or even sunlight, which would be a suitable method for many different developing countries, the formation of most hazardous by-products can be avoided, and the ideal result of the disinfection process can be
However physiologic monitors have low traces of radiation that emit from the machines that could be harmful to the people wearing the devices. The device is expensive and cost the manufacturers producing them a lot of money. 5. CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM As earlier said CDSS is designed to incorporate medical knowledge with patient data into the system to get specific advice to manage patient’s condition. In order words any computer system that is designed to integrate clinical data with medical knowledge is meant to provide decision support.
TO DESIGN AND PERFORM IN SILICO STUDIES OF 3-(6'-SUBSTITUTED HEXYLOXY) 1-HYDROXY XANTHONE DERIVATIVES AGAINST PROTEIN 3LN1 AS COX-2 INHIBITORS. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGN CADD is capable of increasing the hit rate of novel drug compounds because it uses a much more targeted search than traditional HTS and combinatorial chemistry. It not only aims to explain the molecular basis of therapeutic activity but also to predict possible derivatives that would improve activity. In a drug discovery campaign, CADD is usually used for three major purposes: i. Filter large compound libraries into smaller sets of predicted active compounds that can be tested experimentally ii. Guide the optimization of lead compounds, whether to increase