Composite Material Analysis

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The introduction is broadly categorized into three parts. The first part presents the overview of composite. The second part presents the phenomenon of piezoelectricity, piezoelectric materials and effect of piezoelectric materials and the third part presents the overview of different type of stiffeners and the use of stiffeners.
1.1 Composites
The word composite in the term composite material signifies that two or more materials are combined on a macroscopic scale to form a useful third material. Composites are made up of individual constituent materials. Matrix and reinforcement are the two main parts of constitute materials. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcement materials by maintaining their relative positions and the reinforcements impart their special mechanical and physical properties to enhance the matrix properties. Composite materials are those formed by combining two or more materials on a macroscopic scale such that they have better engineering properties than the conventional materials such
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They have similar electromechanical coupling effects. PZT is the most researched and used piezoelectric material in the control of structures. But it is brittle and difficult to fabricate into complex shapes and large sheets of films. On the other hand, the new material PVDF is characterized by such properties as flexibility, light weight and inexpensiveness. PVDF materials are available in large sheets of thin films and easy to shape into specific geometries to implement modal actuators and modal sensors for the control and sensing of flexible structures. Furthermore PVDF materials have a large range of dynamic sensitivity and their maximum response frequency is in the GHz range. All these qualities have made PVDF very attractive for adaptive vibration control of structural
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