Modern Town Planning

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Planning refers to the control of urban development by a local government authority, from which a licence must be obtained to build a new property or change an existing one. Planning consists of two categories: Development Planning and Development Control. Development Planning involves the preparations of plans and development of policies and Development Control involves the applications where its primary objective is to ensure that development which is being implemented is consistent with and in accordance with policy and the development plan. Modern town planning dates back to acts introduced in Germany in 1884, but it was a New York act in 1916 which gave the first US city a comprehensive planning policy to control use in different areas…show more content…
Areas are designated under the structure plan, amenities and services are planned for, and broad regulations are laid down to govern the style and quality of building. Under the area structure plan there is also a local plan to fill in the detail for each locality. Although nominally under the control of a planning committee, most of the input into the development plans comes in practice from those with expertise and qualifications in the field, that is, the professional staff. The same applies to individual proposals for development that are submitted seeking planning permission. Although planning committees can decide against departmental recommendations, it is normal to regard the approval of the planning officer and his or her department as the major hurdle to be surmounted in the process of gaining consent. The aims that underlie the principles and procedures of urban planning policy are harder to determine because they are so often taken for granted. It is taken as axiomatic that public authority should control and determine the uses of land for residential, commercial or industrial purposes. The general assumption has been that without such controls there would be an intolerable mix of land uses, making conditions…show more content…
Reference to prevailing public policy in a locality has served to settle differences and to minimise conflicts over how particular pieces of land should be used. It is supposed that only public controls of this type can protect areas of historic interest or special character from defacement by unsuitable buildings and activities. It is similarly assumed that local authorities are appropriate bodies to determine what public facilities are required in an area, and to use planning controls to require private developers to contribute to their provision. The planning bodies, by insisting on parks, play areas, access roads and any necessary services, can impose many of the costs of these as development costs, under the threat of withholding planning permission. Thus the public sector is deemed suitable to do the planning, and the private sector to do the paying. As well as acting as guarantor of the supply of facilities and amenities, urban planning policy is credited with the maintenance of standards. Not only are the convenience of the public, but its general welfare, health and safety claimed as consequences of development planning. The public authority uses its powers to control such factors as density of building, room sizes, building heights and distances back, as well as quality of materials used

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