The key component of all solar system is the solar collector. This is a device which absorbs the solar radiation from sun converts into heat and transfers this heat to a fluid ( air, water, oil ) passes through the collector. The solar energy collected is carried from the circulating fluid either directly to the hot water or to a thermal energy storage tank from which can be utilized for use at night or cloudy days. There are basically two types of solar collectors: non-concentrating/stationary and concentrating. A non-concentrating collector has the flat surface for intercepting and for absorbing solar radiation, where a sun-tracking concentrating solar collector usually has concave reflecting surfaces to intercept and focus the sun’s radiation to a smaller receiving surface, by means of increasing the radiation flux.
Low temperature solar thermal conversion 2) High temperature system Solar power tower is employed for high temperature system. A receiver is mounted on the tower which is 100 to 500m high and designed to withstand the weight of the receiver. Here reflecting mirrors are known as heliostat. The heliostats are arranged in such a way that they direct the solar that passes through the array that would otherwise be lost, recovering it for productive use. The collector transfers captured energy to a
The Sun’s energy which radiates into the Earth’s surface and harnessed by solar cells are composed of broad spectrum of electro-magnetic (EM) waves combined together which form visible light that have different power densities depending on the wavelength of propagation. The particular region of operation for crystalline silicon solar cell is the visible spectrum. Particle nature of light Light consists of energy carrying quantum-mechanical particles called photon. The energy of photon is directly proportional to the frequency of propagation. Energy of photons can be calculated using the equation E = hc/ λ or E(eV) = 1.24 / λ(μm) which give results in electron volts.
1 OVERVIEW OF SOLAR COLLECTOR : Solar energy collectors are special kind of heat exchangers that transform solar radiation energy to internal energy of the transport medium. The major component of any solar system is the solar collector. This is a device which absorbs the incoming solar radiation, converts it into heat, and transfers this heat to a fluid (usually air, water, or oil) flowing through the collector. The solar energy thus collected is carried from the circulating fluid either directly to the hot water or space conditioning equipment or to a thermal energy storage tank from which can be drawn for use at night and/or cloudy days. There are basically two types of solar collectors: nonconcentrating or stationary and concentrating.
Hundreds of solar cells (also called photovoltaic cells) make up a solar photovoltaic (PV) array. Solar cells are the components of solar arrays that convert radiant light from the sun into electricity that is then used to power electrical devices and heat and cool homes and businesses. Solar cells contain materials with semiconducting properties in which their electrons become excited and turned into an electrical current when struck by sunlight. While there are dozens of variations of solar cells, the two most common types are those made of crystalline silicon (both monocrystalline and polycrystalline) and those made with what is called thin film technology. The majority of the solar cells on the market today are made of some type of silicon
The main biomass fuel that is well known is wood and byproducts. The min method to produce biomass energy is from the thermal treatment (i.e. incineration, gasification and pyrolysis), biomedical processing and chemical treatment. 1.2 Why solar energy Project related to solar energy is selected here because it has too many advantages over other conventional and renewable energies some of them are stated here 1.2.1 Renewable energy Solar energy is a renewable energy source this means that we cannot run out of solar energy as conflicting to non renewable energy source. 1.2.2 Abundant The prospective of solar energy is afar thoughts.
As the sun rays hit the PV module, the solar panel absorb some photons and the photons’ energy is transferred to an electron in the semiconductor material. With the energy from the photon, the electron can escape its usual position in the semiconductor atom to become part of the current in an electrical circuit. These types of PV cells crystalline
It works on the theory that when light falls on the solar cell, electron -hole pairs are created in the n-type emitter and in the p-type base. The generated electrons and holes then diffuse to the junction and are swept away by the electric field, thus producing. Some modules are selected and worked out to suitable specifications. The development of solar charger goes from the fundamental level
sun, wind, rain, tides and it is the by far most the cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. Among the various energy sources the solar energy is an attractive alternative energy source, inexhaustible, available at no cost and pollution free. In order to convert the solar energy, the solar energy conversion system should be cost effective and energy efficient. The solar energy conversion systems are broadly divided into two categories: (i) photothermal and (ii) photovoltaic. Thephotothermalsystems convert solar radiation into thermal energy, which may be converted as electrical energy, whereas the photovoltaic systems directly convert sunlight into electricity.
Alternative Energy - a set of advanced production methods of energy transfer and utilization , which is not as widespread as traditional , but are of interest because - for the profitability of their use in the usually low risk of causing harm to the environment .The main focus is the search for alternative energy sources and the use of alternative (non-traditional) sources of energy. Energy sources - "naturally occurring substances and processes that allow us to obtain the necessary energy for the existence" . An alternative source of energy is a renewable resource, it is a substitute for traditional sources of energy, functioning on oil to produce natural gas and coal, which when burned emit into the atmosphere of carbon dioxide, contributing