Reading and listening have a significant role in the vocabulary acquisition because words do not exist on their own, but they depend on each other and live with other words (Boyle, 1987; Longman Nation, 2005) . 3. (Omaggio, 1986) has noted that students remember the words in context more than when these words are single items. 4. Students will be encouraged to use their imagination in order to think and speak, in addition, encouraging them to be interested in the speech of the others when using the small-group activities in the listening process (Rivers, 1983a)
They are not able to express themselves with their own words. One teacher is not able to change the educational system but he can improve learning using methods which helps learners to enrich their knowledge. If learners want to use the language properly they have to master all the abilities of four skills. When we learn the language we cannot separate these four skills. Learners can improve all four skills by training and participation.
Vocabulary teaching and learning is a very challenging and demanding process while learning any foreign language. University students try to find out which vocabulary learning method is more beneficial or even the best one. However, not surprisingly, their first approach is to try to memorize every word that they do not know. According to the studies, beginners prefer learning words separately, that is, using a list of words to memorize, whereas advanced students, although there are some exceptions, try to learn words in context (Ellis, 1994, p. 553). Likewise, vocabulary teaching is generally restricted to presenting new items as they appear in any activity without preparing the learners through activation of prior knowledge or helping them
It is important to have an instructional focus for developing learners, especially those in their early years to learn and use the alphabetic principle and understand the systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds. This principle helps the learner to build on their ability to read and pronounce words. This paper gives an insight to teaching phonics and both phonological and phonemic awareness to young learners who are at an early impressionable age, recognizing the challenges and complications with reading and pronunciation, along with identifying the methods of teaching young learners the fundamental backbone of a spoken language. For a learner to be successful at reading and writing, they must first
Vocabulary is an important factor which contributing to develop four skills when learning a foreign language: listening, speaking, reading and writing. There is strong relationship between knowing a word and four skills above by many researchers as Nation (1990) and Laufer (1997). Knowing the word helps learners master a foreign language through mastering all four skills. However, many students often think that knowing a word is just knowing the form and meaning of that word. Several researchers emphasizes that many kinds knowledge of vocabulary are necessary to be mastered in “know” a word.
In this paper I focused on vocabulary learning strategies. I examined the questions how effective vocabulary teaching can be to pre-intermediate students and what techniques can be beneficial through the teaching process. Through the study I tried to focus on developing students’ personality as the first teacher competence describes. I concentrated on the individual differences as well. When I carried out this research I was teaching in a language school so my participant were young adults and adults.
The majority of the strategies are either vocabulary learning strategies. They are all memory strategies, or can be used for vocabulary learning tasks. The first investigation of vocabulary learning strategies as a whole was carried out by Stoffen (1995). She wrote some questionnaire where some items designed to measure vocabulary learning strategies. Nation (2001) divided vocabulary learning strategies into three groups.
[24a] In reality, however, most students are not able to speak fluently and accurately when (they are) doing conversation orally. [75a] The teachers should give more exercises for speaking while they are teaching speaking. [20a] The mastery of speaking becomes the most important aspect in learning a second or foreign language compared with other language skills, and it can be measured if the students are successful to carry out a conversation in the language. [109b] For increasing vocabulary, there are some ways that can be done by the students, namely: the students can look up or consult the dictionary. [201b] Linguistic knowledge needs to be learnt by the students as it helps them understand a