Disadvantages Of The Musculoskeletal System

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Musculoskeletal disorders are disorder of the musculoskeletal system which results from repeated exposure to hazards or risk factors in the workplace. The musculoskeletal system includes all muscles, bones, tendons, bursa, joints, and intervertebral discs.1

MDS are among the most costly health care problems facing society today. Indicated that psychosocial factors, individual factors, workplace physical requirements, and workplace organizational factors have been associated with risk. Since musculoskeletal risk is multi-dimensional, the magnitude of risk attributable to various factors can be of importance to scientists and policy makers in designing countermeasures to reduce injury incidence. Traditionally, the disciplines of biomechanics,
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MSD decrease productivity at work due to sick leave and early retirement, and are also costly in terms of treatment and individual suffering. Moreover, MSD represent a common health-related reason for discontinuing work and for seeking health care. In many occupations, MSD include a wide range of inflammatory and degenerative conditions affecting the muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves, bones and joints. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders can take different characteristics. It is generally agreed that the injuries result from overuse, beyond a person’s body recovery capacity. Almost all work requires the use of the arms and hands. Therefore, most WMSD affect the hands, wrists, elbows, neck, and shoulders. Work using the legs can lead to WMSD of the legs, hips, ankles, and feet. Some back problems also result from repetitive activities. Carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, and tension neck syndrome are examples. Work activities which are frequent and repetitive, or activities with awkward postures cause these disorders which may be painful during work or at rest. WMSDs arise from ordinary arm and hand movements such as bending, straightening, gripping,holding, twisting, clenching and reaching. These common movements are not particularly harmful in the ordinary activities of daily life. What makes them hazardous in work situations is the continual repetition, often in a forceful manner, and most of all, the speed of the movements and the lack of time for recovery between them. WMSDs do not happen as a result of a single accident or injury. Rather, they develop gradually as a result of repeated trauma. Excessive stretching of muscles and tendons can cause

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