The Detector: The separated ions are then measured, and the results displayed on a chart. Mass spectrometry has both qualitative and quantitative uses. These include determining the structure of a compound, quantifying the amount of a compound in a sample and determining the isotopic composition of elements in a molecule. This technique basically studies the effect of ionizing energy on molecules. It depends upon chemical reactions in the gas phase in which sample molecules are consumed during the formation of ionic and neutral species.
Introduction Studying the relationship between a sample’s weight and its temperature is one of most useful analytical methods because this relationship (mass and heat) can provide information about physical process (such as evaporation) and chemical process (such as thermal degradation) of material that causes the material to lose volatile gases. Therefore, to characterize wide verities of materials, thermogravimetric method (TGA) is widely thermal analysis techniques used to measure weight changes of a sample as a function of increasing temperature and time in controlled atmosphere. This method is very significant to study the effect of heat on the changing mass of the sample in which makes TGA ideal for determining thermal or oxidative stabilities of materials as well as their compositional properties. Significance TGA measurements provide valuable information that can be used to select materials end use applications, predict product performance and improve product quality. In addition, it provides complimentary and supplementary characterization information to the most commonly used thermal technique, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method.
Gravimetric analysis is a method that involves precipitating and weighing the mass to determine how much of a certain substance is present. Precipitation is the first step in this method which can be broken down into two major processes. The initial step in the crystallization is called nucleation, the formation of the nucleus. The other process is called particle growth, the stage
The molar mass of a volatile liquid can be obtained by measuring the temperature, pressure, mass, and volume in a gaseous state. The equation used to determine the molar mass is derived from the Ideal Gas Law equation. The objective of this experiment aims to determine the molecular mass of a
Experiment 9: The Molar Volume of a Gas Introduction Description: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the molar volume of a gas by conducting the hydrogen gas producing chemical reaction: Mg(s)+2HCl (aq)→〖MgCl〗_2 (aq)+H_2 (g) A known mass of solid magnesium was reacted with an excess of hydrochloric acid in a sealed vessel, three times, for a total of three trials. A gas pressure sensor and temperature probe were connected to the vessel and a computer which allowed Logger Pro to collect the pressure and temperature change data through the course of the reaction. This data was then used to calculate the molar volume of the hydrogen gas at STP, and the Universal Gas Constant, R, for each trial. Background: STP stands for
Water quality is measure by several factors, such as the concentration of dissolved oxygen, bacteria levels, the amount of salt or the amount of suspended material in the water. The concentration of microscopic algae and quantities of pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, and other contaminants also factors to measured water quality. Experts have worked internationally including in the United State for the past decades and have designed the term Water Quality Index (WQI) in the need for
I. Introduction This experiment uses calorimetry to measure the specific heat of a metal. Calorimetry is used to observe and measure heat flow between two substances. The heat flow is measured as it travels from a higher temperature to a lower one. Specific heat is an amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of anything one degree Celsius.
To determine the rate of reaction there are many method to be used for example, measuring the mass after the product has been added and measuring the difference in mass on the duration of a digital scale. Another method, which will be used in this experiment is using a gas syringe to measure the volume of the gas which has been produced. The cylinder inside, will be pushed out to show a quantitative presentation of the volume produced by the reaction. Hypothesis I predict that the more baking powder added to the vinegar, the more reaction will take place causing for more gas to be produced per 10 seconds. There will be a gradual decrease in difference between volume in gas per 10 seconds over the duration of time.
Exploration Title: Effect of Temperature on rate of Osmosis Submitted By: Abdulkarim Kamal Date Submitted: October 19th 2015 Subject: Biology HL Teacher: Mr. Nick Aim: This is an investigation to determine the relation between temperature of a solution (sucrose) and the rate of osmosis Scientific Context: Osmosis is defined a passive transport process in which a fluid diffuses across a semi-permeable membrane, from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low solute concentration and vice-versa. There are various factors that could potentially influence the rate of osmosis; these factors include volume, concentration, and temperature. If all external factors that may interfere with rate of osmosis are controlled, the results will show equal amounts of fluid on both sides of the barrier (membrane); this is known as an “isotonic” state. For this lab I will be using water and sucrose to demonstrate the rate of osmosis. In this lab I will be exploring how temperature impacts the rate of osmosis by placing pieces of potato of equal size in solutions of different temperatures and observing the change in mass of potato after a given period of time.
There are a variety of ways in which flow can be measured including the use of a positive-displacement meter which can accumulate a fixed volume of fluid before it calculates the number of time the volume is filled in order to measure flow. Another method relies solely on forces that are produced by the flowing stream as it overcomes a known constriction, which indirectly calculates the flow rate in the system. Flow can be measured by measuring velocity over a known area. Velocity of fluid flow is affected by the viscosity of the liquid. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian are terms that categorize the viscosity of fluid flow.