The formalists primarily concerned themselves with form as content – notions, emotions or humanity – was merely a justification to shape language in a literary fashion. Thus, a formalist approach empowers the reader to embark on an observant reading. The New Critics were similarly quite concerned on the text and debated that literary language conjures profound and tributary meanings, courtesy of their belief that it was connotative. However, unlike Formalism, New Criticism did not actively deliberate on the segregation of form and content. Rather, texts were regarded as mechanisms fused by their strategies, ideas, motifs and styles.
There is a literary work that brings us to the world of dreams and takes us away from reality. It has to be contrasted with a literary work that needs our interpretation. Every literary work has their own meaning, both implicit and explicit meaning. Sometimes the writer use implicit meaning with use a word or some word to draw a situation or a condition, so it is called as implicit meaning. Rare for The Writer use explicit meaning, it is the way of convey meaning with use a word or some word that really - really tell and show that condition or situation.
Those critical approaches are Reader-Response Criticism and Psychological (psychoanalytic) criticism. Reader-Response Criticism is as important as the author is since; readers are active participants in literary works and has his or her own opinion, understanding and image of the work read. Even though the interpretation may look similar from one person to another, nonetheless, there will always be a slight difference in how it is perceived. According to Barnet, Burto, and Cain (2011), readers are to give a response that cannot be compared to the real life. “At one extreme are those who say that our response to a work of literature should be purely aesthetic- a response to a work of art-and not the response we would have to something comparable in real life” (p. 1745).
Literature cannot prevail without imagination. When words combined with thoughts, giving voice to ideas and imagination a piece of work is produced, whereas the way of portraying reality may vary. “Reality” is completely opposite of “fantasy”. One validates the other by knowing what the other veritably meant. According to Derrida, meaning helps us differentiate between what is and not?
Identification of their own reactions and assessing the interactions of other team members, proactive decisions can be made to influence team`s positive response to cultural diversity. One of the most obvious and common problems in diverse teams is unequal participation. Often team members from the majority culture dominate the team`s interaction, at the expense of members from minority cultures. Is cultural differences are emphasized this way it can cause team members to overestimate their similarity to members of the same culture and to overestimate their differences from members of other cultures. This type of exclusion occurs in two different ways: verbal, when majority team members start conversations only with other members who are similar to them, and non verbally, when majority team members physically turns away from minority group members as if to direct interaction only to certain group members (Keyton, 1999, pp.
It means we are human beings only insofar as we have language. Norris (2004) mentioned that the most informative content is reflected through our use of language, but images may carry even more. Language can sometimes be subordinated or even absent. To analyse the meaning, a linguist has to take into consideration the fact that all almost all types of discourse often combine several communicative modes. It is impossible to study one mode independently of others, because modes often work together to convey a particular meaning.
In the referential speech, the relation between the linguistic sign and extra-linguistic 'objects’ would seem to be a close and almost automatic one. In other words, in the referential or emotive use of language, the linguistic sign and the non-linguistic sign are in interpretive relation with one another. In the poetic function of language, it is the interpretative relationship between linguistic signs which is important. In poetry, the relation between word and object is called into question. In the poetic text, a given word may be chosen not only because of its paradigmatic associations with other words in the linguistic code, but also because of its equivalence relations with other words in the text itself.
As we learned and discussed in the course of this semester, we were able to know that translating is not just changing words into other languages. Words not only carry meanings but carry various emotions and culture. Language is deeply related with culture and history of each region which make translation not an easy job. Therefore, translation becomes a very complex process. Each countries in the world has its own unique culture and tradition which some cannot easily be understood by outsiders.
Original text Google translation Human translation We have no time to stand and stare ليس لدينا وقت الوقوف والتحديق وليس لدينا أي وقت إلى الوقوف و التحديق Google translation has difficulties to translate some types of texts, although; it works better on straightforward texts like technical texts or informative web sites more than literary texts. There are some characteristics cannot be achieved by the machine translation in the literary texts: 1-Accuracy of rendering in the sense, emotion and feeling that everything in a text should be include or taken into account in translation. 2-Mastery of the two languages the SL and the TL, regarding the basics of their grammars( word order, sentence and types of clause, tenses) , vocabulary (collocation, combination). 3-Comptence in tone: in literary translation concerns on terms of an attitude of irony, humor or seriousness. 4-Good knowledge of stylistic types of formality ( frozen formal, classical, formal, informal, slang) 5- Creativity.
Literary translation helps these different cultures reach a compromise. Literary translations in particular help these different nations reach a universal culture on a common ground. Hassan (2011) notes that literary translation is a type of translation which is distinguished from translation in general. A literary translation must reflect the imaginative, intellectual and intuitive writing of the author. (p.12).