The librarians are to be dealing the digital library, the virtual library, the hybrid library and the library without wall with all the time. According Arms (2000), digital library can defined as a managed collection of information, with associated services, where the information is stored in digital formats and accessible over a network. A crucial part of this definition is that the information managed. Digital library is a library that provides in digital forms. Even though widely used digital library, hybrid library has just appeared in the digital library research in the UK.
Wikipedia has the potential to cause an educational shift towards a freely available, transparently organised knowledge system. Maybe this shift of knowledge was not visible in 2008, but nowadays you could argue that if academics do not go along with this trend they might soon be outdated. Eijkman states that it needs to give a new discussion about the “control of academic knowledge production” (173). If the academic institutions do carry on in denying the use of publicly accessable knowledge data bases, such as Wikipedia, they obviously fail their obligations. The hierarchic university system is changing and now academics need to focus on integrating this form of knowledge into their work.
We can therefore attest to the many benefits of a written CDP in a library; however, this document is not without its drawbacks. The information needs of the community and the various formats used to provide information are constantly changing. However, the library’s CDP may not have the necessary provisions to adapt to these changes; hence, making it impractical to use for collection development in the future. In times of change, for example, when a new course is introduced in a university, it is expected that the academic library will respond instantly to provide the resources needed (Snow, 1996). However, Cargrill (1984) states that an inflexible CDP would make it difficult to respond quickly to these new demands (as cited in Vickery, 2004).
How is web design applied in any company/organizations? Web designing is an important factor in promoting business or marketing a product. As billions of users browse through the web, trying to find what they want at homes, lots of companies or organizations don't want to miss the profits it can give them. Print ads or billboards are a good source of promoting products but people nowadays would rather choose to sit in their homes and browse through the web searching for the things they need, e.g. Amazon.com, Ebay.com or Gumtree.
Professor Rothenberg (1997, p. xx) in the article How the Web destroys the quality of student research papers admitted that the World Wide Web is becoming an increasingly popular platform for the delivery of information. However, it does not mean that the library loses its position because of the World Wide Web. Students prefer searching online materials to spending time going to the library as they see that the library seems to be dominated by the Web with some advantages. Firstly, with a computer having network connection, everyone can have the ability to gain access to the most current information just by typing a few letters (Naughton, 1997), which will increase the effectiveness of students in their search for information considerably. In addition, an assumption of Rothenberg (1997, p. xx) is that sources on the Internet are out of date.
So it is important to write a detailed and full of examples how conversational user interface improves our life, considering that the audience needs to be convinced. And it is not easy at all. Taking the “risk” to write a long article directed to that audience of reader that is least interested and with almost zero knowledge is a challenge that could be won only if the strategies chosen are the right ones and the way of mixing them together is understandable and not confusing. The author uses many strategies to achieve its goal which is to convince the reader and prepare it for a new technology that will become the new trend in the
INTRODUCTION In the field of data mining, it has been observed that the data grow rapidly. With the rapid growth of data and the availability an increasing number of electronic documents, the task of classification becomes a key method . Document preprocessing is an important parameter and feature selection is a common problem used in preprocessing for machine learning, data mining and pattern recognition . Text categorization has always been a hot topic due to explosive growth of digital documents available. Due to huge development information acquirement and storage, tens, hundreds and even thousands of features are acquired and stored in real world databases.
Rienties and Kinchin  examined the interaction and motivation of learners in online environments which could affect their communication patterns. Martinez et al.,  by combining qualitative evaluation and social network analysis studied social interactions in the classroom and indicated that instructional design could force student to shape a new form of cooperation that despite being counterproductive can improve the collaborative learning environment. Dawson, Tan and McWilliam  have also explored social network as a social activity between students and indicated its effects on school performance. Moreover, Yang and Tang  investigated the effect of social networks on student academic performance in online education and indicated that Advice network centrality was positively related to student performance. Cho et al.