Disc Herniation Research Paper

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What is a disc herniation?
The spinal column is made up of 33 vertebrae (bones) that are joined together to allow forward, backward, side bending, and rotation of the spine. There are five regions that comprise the spinal column; the cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (low back), sacral and coccygeal (tail-bone) regions. The cervical region consists of 7 vertebrae, the thoracic 12 vertebrae and the lumbar region contains five vertebrae. The sacrum is made of 5 fused vertebrae; which are connected to 4 fused vertebrae which form coccyx. Intervertebral discs lie between each vertebrae. Each disc is composed of a gelatinous material in the center, called the nucleus pulpous, and surrounded fiberous tissue (annulus fibrosus). With a disc herrniation, an intervertebral disc's
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Diagnostic tests- Interestingly, not every herniated disc causes symptoms. Some people discover they have a bulging disc or herniated disc after an x-ray for an unrelated reason. An x-ray may be needed to eliminate other causes of back pain such as osteoarthritis (spondylosis) or spondylolisthesis. A CT or MRI scan verifies the extent and location of disc damage. These imaging tests can show the soft tissues (such as the disc).
Treatment
Pain medications, including anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxers, or in severe cases, narcotics, may be prescribed. Epidural steroid injections have been used to decrease pain by injecting an anti-inflammatory drug, around the nerve root to reduce inflammation and edema (swelling).
Physical Therapy
The physical therapist can provide noninvasive therapies into the tissues of the back by the administration of manual therapy if mobility of the spine is impaired or the use of modalities (heat, ice, shortwave diathermy etc). They can assist in improving posture and developing an exercise program for recovery and long-term protection. Appropriate exercise can help take pressure off inflamed nerve structures, while improving overall posture and

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