It is necessary to understand the process of communication to draw a borderline between literal and metaphorical language. When speakers would like to describe something about a reality or experience in the world, they start by means of cognitive process in their minds. The speakers proceed to form the proposition as concise and relevant as possible for conveying the idea. Proposition is the idea or notion about something which is going to convey. In order to communicate this proposition, they will encode it by using linguistic codes which are conventional to pair the meaning of the idea with physical forms (text, utterance).
Similarly word summarization is also just like a text summarization in which we will give the text as a paragraph and from that text we can find the word summary using Word Sense Disambiguation technique. 1.3 Word sense disambiguation Word Sense Disambiguation is a challenging technique in Natural Language Processing. There are some words in the natural languages which can cause ambiguity about the sense of the word. Those words are called polysemous words. Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is the solution to the problem.
Discourse analysis has a growing importance within linguistic studies. Conversation analysis focuses specifically on the study of spoken language. One specific field is the use of linguistic cues for the recognition of personality. Can the idiolect (all of the specific properties that make up an individual’s language usage) tell us something about the personality of the speaker? Can speech analysis lead to personality definition?
Linguistic profiling of a piece of writing (as observed in the Unabomber case) and Authorship profiling (as observed in the Kurt Cobain case). Authorship profiling works by observing syntax, words, and vocabulary and analyzing what traits or points are being communicated indirectly to create a linguistic profile. Professors Sudjana and Fitiri describe this as the linguistic fingerprint. This type of profiling is generally broader and utilizes classic linguistic profiling through detection of patterns, grammar, vocab, etc… The difference being that Authorship profiling and linguistic profiling id that authorship profiling is generally expected to yield more psychological information, linguistic profiling will aid in identifying race, location, gender,
); Conjunctive (Acon), or ‘discourse markers,’ this type signals how the clause as a whole coheres with the preceding textto create textual meanings, e.g. however, therefore, actually. Modal (Amod) which indicates the speaker’s degree of commitment to or viewpoint on what s/he is saying. It contribute to the interpersonal function and falls into two main groups. First, Comment Adjuncts which comment on the clause as whole and are separated off from the rest of the clause by commas such as ‘unfortunately’,' significantly',' admittedly' etc., as noted in Halliday and Matthiessen (2014, p. 191).
A cognitive aspect of metaphors and meaning This section is strictly concerned with a distinction between metaphor from other figures of speech like for example metonymy. It compares similarities as well as differences between them. It also shows the very process of distinction from many perspectives taking various aspects into consideration. 1.3.1. Metaphor vs. Metonymy Metonymy as it was in the case of metaphor can be defined from many perspectives.