social norms, culture, mentality, hidden intentions and pragmatic elements, such as tone, intonation, facial expressions gestures, etc. All of them form a context of situation in which the language was used and we will not give adequate interpretation of the language without them. So, the universe of discourse which is the total context of facts, things, relations , ideas , etc., implied or assumed in a given discussion or discourse is very important when analyzing meanings .The complete meaning of a written or spoken discourse can be fully understood from the context rather than the sentence alone . It is also understood by examining the
Jahandarie (1999) determined an excellent place for beginning communication education. Jahandarie provided a systematic critical view towards the recent studies about the differences between written and oral traditions. Therefore, Jahandarie carried out a unique multidisciplinary work with lots of theories and evidences from different disciplines. There are several general differences between spoken and written discourse analysis. Discourse analysis includes spoken, written, and sign language.
In comparison with Allerton and Tesniére, Herbst supports the idea of verb’s central role in determining the structure of clauses, but at the same time the verb “takes formal considerations as its starting point” [Herbst 2010:183]. Allerton (1982) and Emons (1974, 1978) were the first who suggested “the first two models that offer a fairly comprehensive treatment of English verb valency” [Herbst 2010:183], but at the same both these approaches have diversities. In terms of English syntax Herbst and Shüller (2008) created a new approach which present a combination of traditional grammar and valency theory. In the valency theory verb takes a central position, as it determines “how many other elements have to occur in order to form a grammatical sentence” [Herbst 2004: xxiv], e.g. in active declarative clause some verbs require only one element, while other verbs may have two or more elements.
Stylistic texture as part of the implicit characterization process is established as a characteristic of the literary text. First, the reader/audience is faced with the question of the way individual sentences of a speech relate to one another. Whether they are connected in a strictly logical way, whether they form a more associative series, they always emphasize the structure of a character’s level of awareness. All significant deviations from the normal frequencies in the areas of syntactic and lexical selection and combination can also serve to delineate a character: the frequency of certain sentence types (such as statements or questions), the predominance of active or passive forms, the use of parallelisms and antitheses, an abstract or
Lexicographers study words , their meanings and their histories . Grammarians are concerned with the words and how they are put together to form sentences and spoken utterances . And Discourse Analysts study the ways sentences and utterances go together to make texts and interactions and how they fit into our social world . Therefore , the term discourse analysis may be defined in different ways and its meaning will vary according
This research uses Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) by Halliday to analyze the ideology that relies on the transitivity analysis found in Emma Watson’s speech for the HeForShe campaign. SFL is to be assumed as an approach that helps a researcher in analyzing meanings that are made through the language that is used in everyday communication (Eggins, 2004:1). This approach can also see how language works, how they are produce, how they different people interpret them, and how the culture gives value to them (Eggins, 2004:1). Halliday also explored his research in linguistic analysis and proposed the development of a detailed functional grammar of modern English that shows how simultaneous strands of meanings are expressed in clause structures (Eggins, 2004:2). Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) can be said to be systemic because humans can produce languages in several ways (Halliday, 1994).
It is the vital way of communication performed among humans, has an important role in “defining and expressing the world that is around us.” It is how we send out a message to other people. Language is further defined as “the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and language is any specific example of such a system.” This paper aims to investigate the cultural aspect of communication which is referred to as pragmatics. Cutting (2008) “describes pragmatics as a field of linguistics which examines the language and language variations according to the contexts in which they are used. One of the most prominent contexts of the language is the cultural environment in which the language is used”. La Castro (2012) “states that actions such as asking someone to close the door or ordering coffee at a coffee shop are closely related
The main similarity between spoken and written languages is that they both have communicative function. Spoken language has prosodic characteristic, such as intonation, rhythm and pausing, which let people to identify what kind of idea is transferred in the speech. For instance, ‘In English, statements, wh-questions, commands, and exclamations traditionally are described as having falling intonational patterns and yes-no questions as having typically rising patterns’ (Chun 2000:52). On the contrary, written language contains certain symbols and one of their functions is status marking of a written phrase. Taking the examples of expressions in spoken language mentioned by Chun, full stops ‘.’, question marks ‘?’ and exclamatory marks ‘!’ in written language as well as intonational patterns in spoken language can help to identify the act of stating (I am here.
Chapter 2 Literature Survey 2.1 General Word sense disambiguation was one of the important problem during the early days of machine translation. WSD is the task to determine the proper meaning of word and use it in particular context. WSD can be considered as classication problem because the word senses can be the classes.Moreover the automatic classication techniques can be used to recognize and assign each occurrence of the word to classes from external knowledge sources. 2.2 Literature Review 1. Gaona, Gelbukh A Bandyopadhyay advocate to use knowledge based appraches for better word sense disambiguation.
Kind of: From a Noun Construction to a Discourse Marker Abstract: This study investigates the various uses of a kind of, ranging from a noun construction equivalent to a type of to a discourse marker with interpersonal or textual meaning, and special emphasis is laid on the differences between its nominal qualifying and adverbial uses and its peculiarity as a discourse marker. Grammaticalization underlies the different uses and their co-existence. There is a close correspondence between its form and meaning, and on the other hand, the proper interpretation of the different uses depends on the context. Key words: a kind of, grammaticalization, nominal qualifier, adverbial, discourse marker 1. Introduction (A)kind of/sort of occurs with a significantly high frequency in spoken English.