The Relationship Between Polysemy, Metaphor and Semantic Change Introduction Semantics is the study of meanings of words and sentences communicated through language (Saeed, John I., 1997: 3). Language is a dynamic process and it is believed that change in semantics is less resistant than other areas of grammar so that meaning changes relatively easily and quickly (April McMahon, Understanding Language Change). A semantic change occurs when a different intention conveyed by a word is established in usage within a community. Semantic change can be driven by a number of factors. Semantic change tends to relate to polysemy and metaphor.
Language has three major functions according to Halliday (1985a) namely: ideational, textual, and interpersonal. The first function, ideational, is language functioning as expression of content and communicating information. The focus is content but the transferring information clearly and effectively is given emphasis it can be easily and quickly comprehended. The ideational function involves two main systems, transitivity and ergativity. The second function of language is textual, where language use signifies discourse.
It is necessary for the writer to know when several words or lengthy phrases can be reduced to fewer words that mean the same thing - this is writing in taut style. A good reproduced piece of work, which might be a memorandum for instance, should be clear and conveying of the original message but effectively in a shorter form. A memorandum (or memo) is a brief and often less formal message to be transferred from one department to another. When condensing lengthy passages, it can be useful to highlight useful parts of information as one thoroughly reads and re-reads through it. All the central sentences must be recognised.
1.4.4 The three super-strategies of the politeness theory According to Leech, politeness is basically strategies used to avoid conflict and according to the degree of effort put in the words used to avoid conflicts, it can be measured. (Leech, 1980, p. 19). In order to mitigate the effect of the speaker’s words, he or she has to adopt strategies that can alleviate the tension; therefore, according to Brown and Levinson: There are three main strategies of politeness, ‘positive politeness’ (roughly, the expression of restraint), ‘negative politeness’ (roughly, the expression of restraint), and ‘off-record (politeness)’ (roughly, the avoidance of unequivocal impositions), and claim that the uses of each are tied to social determinants, specifically
I- Scope of the study This research examines cohesion in written media discourse. O 'keeffe (2012) refers to media discourse as "interactions that takes place through a broadcast platform whether spoken or written" (p.441). Newspapers and magazines are examples of the written discourse. But, radio, television and news broadcasts are instances of the spoken discourse. Media is considered a primary source of information.
The ideas in the paragraph should be presented in a logical order by using transitional words or connecting words, which indicate the relationship between ideas. A paragraph may have a concluding sentence, which restates the main idea in a different way. According to Reid (1994) the concluding sentence summarizes the material, offers a solution to the problem, predicts a situation, makes a recommendation or states a conclusion. The main components of a paragraph are unity and coherence. One way to achieve coherence is the use of connectors called transitional words or phrases, sequential words that link one sentence to another (Wyrick 1999).
1.0 INTRODUCTION According to Celce-Murcia and Olshtain (2000), a piece of discourse is an example of “spoken or written language that has describable internal relationships of form and meaning that relate coherently to an external communicative function or purpose and a given audience/interlocutor” (p. 4). The classification of discourse can be divided into spoken and written discourse. 2.0 FEATURES OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL WRITTEN DISCOURSE Written texts can be differentiated according to the level of formality or genre (Celce-Murcia & Olshtain, 2000). The features of different types of texts may also be differ. 2.1 FORMAL WRITTEN DISCOURSE A formal online news report retrieved from Star2.com (Appendix A), Sample 1 had been analysed
People use different methods to communicate. Effective communication involves reading, writing and speaking altogether. Verbal and written communication plays a key role in the process of information exchange. Any form of communication that works the same way and has similar importance. Speaking falls under verbal communication.
Hence, for discourse analysis, structure within a sentence or conversation is an important element. Secondly, function constitutes an important agent as well. This is because a function works on multiple levels to create a generous understanding of the subject matter being analyzed- it brings agents or individuals into contact, it translates the need of the speaker to the recipient while asking for his participation into the situation and lastly, but not the least, the function element of discourse analysis is real time and includes social factors into the analysis. Based on the definition of Wikipedia, discourse analysis is without a doubt a broad term for several approaches to measures spoken, written or possibly signed as language use. It is considered a discipline of the social sciences, which includes a variety of several sociolinguistic approaches such as linguistics, education, sociology, communication studies, social psychology and cultural
This literature review examines the many aspects of media biases and the effects it may have on a variety of different social groups and issues. According to Kellner, the study of culture is valuable because it enables one to read and interpret one’s culture critically. Kellner encourages a multiperspectival approach that includes, discussing production and political economy; engaging in textual analysis; and studying the reception and use of cultural texts. He goes on to explain that it is important to analyze cultural text within their system of production and distribution referred to as the political economy of our culture. Also, he believes that close textual reading examines the meaning of the text in not only written words, but also in visual and other non-verbal cues.