Unplanned Discourse

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Discourse-based and Genre-based language
Instructional materials

Discourse-based language instructional materials Units of language which go beyond the level of sentence are what we refer to as discourse. Thus, a discourse can be a short interaction, an entire conversation, a written paragraph, a speech, and so on. And as Chomsky has observed, there is no limit to the number of possible sentences that can be generated from the grammar and lexicon of a language. Interactions and conversations are referred to as unplanned or spontaneous discourse, whereas such things as speeches, paragraphs, book chapters, and so on are called planned discourse. The idea behind discourse is coherence; that is, within a discourse, multiple sentences or propositions logically follow each other. Scholars engaged in discourse analysis focus on how this coherence is achieved as well as what the differences are between planned and unplanned discourse. Nunan (1993), summarizes some important notions in relation to the discourse competence. He starts with the distinction between ‘discourse conveyed in the FLT classroom’ and
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This shift has led to a reconceptualization of language, context, and learning in profound ways. Sociocultural theories (SCT) of learning conceptualize the relationship between the learner and the social world as dialectical and mediated by cultural artifacts, among which language is primary. Learners are not just passive recipients of language input and teachers are not just providers of input. Rather, the learners, the teacher, and the sociocultural context in which the discourse takes place are constitutive of what is being learned. Seen from this perspective, classroom discourse studies based on the input-output model present an impoverished and reductionist view of L2
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