Foucault in order to study the structures of society and social reality he made use of the role of discourse and language in shaping the same. Foucault focused on social reality and the underlying truth in it. He has used main elements like discourse, language, power, knowledge and truth in understanding the existing truth in it. As per the writings and thoughts of Foucault (1977), he connects discourse with knowledge and mentioned that it is through this we are created; and discourse acts as a catalyst between power and knowledge using language as a medium of force. Thus it will be more clear with the below figure representing discourse theory.
Professionals also need to assume their civic identities by ensuring that their work contributes toward adding “to the public value for which the profession stands” (2004,p. 23). Assuming such civic identities requires application of two things. First, professionals must show that their intentions are “public-regarding” (Peters 2004, p. 48). Second, the practices that professionals undertake must be for “public-regarding ends and in a public-regarding way” (Hatcher 2008, p. 25).
It is essential to understanding the social constructivist theory that you understand Gergen’s view of the subject. Gergen supports a form of social constructivism referred to as social constructionism. This theory is very similar to the social constructivist theory on how people create knowledge One problem that Gergen identifies is the problem of knowing other minds (1995). This is essential to his theory, because like social constructivism, social constructionism requires two separate actors. Gergen (1995) suggest, “that the contents of these minds are expressed in words and actions, how are we to determine what internal states these words and actions are attempting to express?
HUYNH THI HONG HOA CLASS: CDA STUDENT NO. : 140929001 THE DISCOURSE- HISTORICAL APPROACH An introduction: The Discourse-Historical Approach is a set of analytical tools developed by Ruth Wodak and her colleagues under the framework of Norman Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis. In the Discourse-Historical Approach, Wodak and her colleagues assume a dialectical relationship between discourse and the particular social world it is embedded in, including situations, institutional frames, and social structures. There are some basic concepts that have been used in the Discourse-Historical Approach. They will be explained respectively as the followings: Critique: Critique has many different meanings according to Frankfurt School, literary criticism
Apart from that, they have also stress on the relationship on language learning and teaching and how does its interconnected with post structuralist theory of language, identity and power. Post structuralist approach refers to the performance of gender in a social context. Its also focusing on language thought emphasize the meaning about gender and the identity. Literature review chiefly on the significant and growth of identity in language learning. Norton mentioned that “social identity, investment and language learning drew on post structuralist theories of language and identity to offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching.
Anti-oppressive practice focuses on the structural inequalities and places the blame that service users internalize on the structures and systems themselves (Ajandi, 2018). Humanistic and social justice values and ideas shape anti-oppressive practice (Healy, 2015). They address inequalities that affect opportunities of service users, due to the interlocking of social relations and oppression (Burke & Harrison, 2002). AOP aims to identify oppressions and define ways in which social workers can attempt to become anti-oppressive, avoid discomfort, and end oppression to service users (Strega, 2007). It highlights mutual involvement between the social worker and the service user, challenging forms of oppression and inequalities (Burke & Harrison, 2002), and presents the idea that service users do not occupy a “single identity”, but instead have interlocking oppressions that work together to put clients at a social disadvantage (Strega, 2007).
According to the supporters, culture is tightly connected with the active participation of an individual as a citizen in a society while providing an insight of self-assessment and identification (can also be attributed to constructivism) for the individual and the societal groups. The thirds outlook on cultural diplomacy is the ideological one. Proponents of the ideological approach have a notion of supremacy of the already functioning state machine for which the culture should “serve” without infringing on the status-quo of the state apparatus. To sum up, it is evident of what these different perceptions have in common – the effort of the states to attain more power and implement their foreign policies by utilizing culture as an efficient tool together with non-governmental organizations or the voluntary participation of its citizens that would increase the cooperation with other countries without the need to resort to
1.6 CDA and Political Discourse Analysis There are many approaches for the analysis of Political Discourse integrated with Critical Discourse Analysis. Wodak (1995) postulates a major influence in this study by summarizing the constitutive principles of CDA as follows: 1- Political commitment: the aim of CDA is to uncover power-abuse and inequality. CDA is being criticised for being political only because its political values are explicit. 2- Problem-oriented research: CDA studies the everyday use of language in different social environments such as organisational discourse, media discourse, etc. Each discourse is socially relevant to the situation, thus it is problem-oriented.
2.3 Sociopragmatic and English Language Teaching 2. 3. 1 Should sociopragmatic be taught? Despite the fact that pragmatic failure is a crucial cause of lack of succcesful communication, teachers, curriculum designers, and textbook writers have roughly all the way pay no attention to it. Why this happens and why they favour to stay on the more trustworthy arena of grammar is not hard to explain.
1. INTRODUCTION Systemic Functional Grammar is a theory that is oriented to the description of how language makes meaning in context. According to Halliday (2014, p54), the word Systemic represents the development of details system networks in grammar, and the word Functional, the development of the theory of metafunctions in language. As language is a resource of information, the meaning which writer and speaker means come from a context of culture and by means of extra linguistics factors, like field, tenor or mode. The structure of language shows meaning which is interpreted by the audience.