Such support can come in many forms such as ‘helping learners do needs assessments, locating learning resources, choosing instructional methods, and evaluating strategies’ Merriam p107. The second category refers to self-directed learning as a process of learning. Attempts are made to understand the process of self-direction with a view of adopting them to formal learning. They are three main models, linear, interactive, and instructional models Knowles and Tough model are linear. Knowles developed learning contract meant to encourage and support learner’s self-direction.
Behaviorist and Cognitivist leaning theories are two key elements of psychology that have significant implications for education, learning, as well as technology. The behaviorist learning theory “Focuses on that which is observable and measurable“. Furthermore, it regards the concept of learning as a behavior and provides a framework for manipulating behavior through conditioning for a desirable result reinforcement and punishment. The behaviorist stance on learning is a behavior can be learned through rewards and punishment. The cognitivist learning theory focuses on the mind and mental thinking even more so, how the mind acquires and processes information.
Piaget expressed the importance of enabling children to make process in their own learning as this is how children learn best. Regarding this, within the classroom learning should be student-centred and accomplished through active discovery learning (Ribaupierre 2015) For instance, the teacher's role is to facilitate learning by providing a variety of experiences, rather than direct tuition. Piaget emphasised largely on the discovery of learning which consequently teachers can apply in their education pedagogy by providing activities to promote actively exploring (Ribaupierre 2015 & Smith 2015). It essentially provides opportunities for learners to explore and experiment, thereby encouraging new understandings. As children will be encouraged to discover information themselves schemes will be used to enable to form a mental representation of the object or action of the information processed (Miller 2010).
In addition, Lev Vygotsky Socio-Cultural Theory states that students’ learning could be more effective if it is provided with support or scaffold. Information processing theory supplies the scaffold theory which is also a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and is stored and retrieved from our memory. Cognitive psychologist believed that processes influence the nature of what is learned. They considered learning as largely an internal process, not an external behavior change. They looked into how learners receive, perceive, store and retrieve
3.1) Theories of Behaviour Management Behaviour management is a tool, a system, generates learning environment to encourage positive behaviour and minimise the opportunity for negative conduct to occur. It is like modifying and change learner's action in a positive manner where the primary focus lies on maintaining order. Many theorists presented their views in their research work on the understanding of the nature of the behaviour BILL ROGER is an education consultant and author present his work on behaviour management, discipline, effective teaching, and stress management etc. and also lectures widely covers the topic to both the learner and the teacher for the challenges facing in leadership in educational premises. Bill Roger recommended
According to David P. Ausubel, goal of learning subject matter and improve of presentational methods of teaching is important. His theory of meaningful learning regarding how knowledge is structured, how mind work to process new information and how educators can apply these ideas about learning when they present new material to learner (Gupta, 2014). This model helps educator to arrange and transfer information as meaningfully and effectually as possibly. Advance organisers provide perceptions and ideologies to learner directly. Cognitive structure deals with any kind of knowledge of a field is in our mind, how successfully it is organised.
PERFORMANCE TASKS IN DEVELOPING CREATIVITY IN EDUCATION ABSTRACT The creativity is a process which can be enhanced by education. The creativity process may be evaluated in the most efficient way by following the student studies. The significant point is to look at the events, ideas, rules, behaviors and objects from different perspectives and to experience it in the life itself. The creativity is an important dimension of learning. The creative thinking is vital for acquiring the information and the environments convenient to enhancing the creativity help learners to hold positive attitudes towards learning.
Here, people understand things through reflection and by analyzing changing social patterns, which in turn influences their view of the world. In this respect, Rigoni recommended that the curriculum should take this approach to enable educators to understand the struggles students experience while learning and develop mechanisms that will streamline the learning process. The approach makes it possible for teachers to identify essential content areas that would benefit students and include them in the curriculum. It also reinforces the concepts and skills of self-disclosure, professional use of self, critical self-reflection, and narrative inquiry that would enable educators to develop curriculums that would make the learning process easy for students and improve the quality of educational outcomes. Moreover, social learning promotes the development of wisdom and intuition in students, which is vital for their understanding of the world.
Abstract Conceptualization: the learner must possess and use analytical skills to conceptualize the experience; and 4. Active Experimentation: the learner must possess decision making and problem solving skills in order to use the new ideas gained from the experience. These factors of experiential learning are intrinsically important for employability, and work programmes such as internships or volunteering to work at companies, enhances a student’s employability status. 4.3 Collaborative efforts needed by HEI and employees to align qualifications that will results in employable
In the relationship between Montessori teacher and student, teacher leads students to novel lessons and challenges like a guilder; however, children usually freely choose and interact with the environment which provides stimulus enable children’s learning (Lillard, 2013). According to Olson and Hergenhahn (2013, P. 281), Piaget advocated that students should be provided chances by educational environment to discover by themselves. Instruction might prevent children from complete understanding. In addition, this theory was proved in a meta-analyses conducted by Alfieri, Brooks, Aldrich and Tenenbau (2011), which indicated that “unassisted discovery learning might lead to better learning outcomes than explicit-instructional tasks”. At this point, you might worry what if the students were not able to solve problems by their own.