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9/11 Effects On Islamophobia

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examined and compared coverage of Muslims instantaneously after 9/11 and a years after the event. They realized that, uninterruptedly after the 9/11 incident, many Muslim Americans turned into the objectives of a backlash of fierce anger and a great desire for revenge (Nacos & Torres, 2007). As people perception of Muslims sustained to erode, Khan (2013) found an apparently counterintuitive incident that the passage of time did not ease the emotional injury associated with 9/11. In actual fact, the aggression toward Islam and Muslim in the US has touched a high concentration level that directs many to conclude, a years later, that Islamophobia is spread through public emotion in the US (Yang & Self, 2015).

New media depictions of Muslims in the United States such as Hollywood films have regularly remained to a colonial discourse of a virtuous, courageous and civilized West courageously confronting an evil, voluptuous, and brutal Islamic world (Miles, 1989: 34–35; Said, 1979: 48; Gottschalk and Greenberg, 2008: 118–125; McAlister, 2005: 82–83; Shaheen, 2003). Discrimination against Muslims in Western countries preceded the September 11 attacks in the United States, although those events and
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As Edina Lecovic, Communication Director at MPAC stated, “Islamophobia is not a Muslim issue. It is an American issue. Islamophobia falls within a history of hate in this country, and we (Muslims) are certainly not the first and we will certainly not be the last” (ISM, 20 October 2007). Islamophobia is, undoubtedly, not a new phenomenon. Some scholars introduce the Iranian Revolution in 1979 as the beginning point for Islamophobia within the United States; however, Greenwald and Gottschalk (2008) found Islamophobia far earlier when Western world portrays Islam and Muslims as the “others” after their immigration to their
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