Part Two The mutual disengagement and withdrawal between the older adult and society are one of the sociological theories of aging; the disengagement theory (Touhy, Jett, Boscart, & McCleary, 2012, p. 93). This theory does not apply to Gurdeep’s life as she moved in with her son’s family and constantly interacts with each of them every day. She also volunteers at the gurdwara daily and is still engaged in her spiritual and religious activities helping her increase her social interactions with those other than family. Due to the distance and her age, however, she has lost contact with many of her friends which applies to the disengagement theory where the older adult withdraws from their normal activities and interactions with society. The Activity Theory is linked to successful aging through physical activity, social activity/engagement and the roles an individual plays in their lives in a society (Touhy et al., 2012, p. 93).
The disengagement theory says it is functional for society to remove people from their traditional roles when they become elderly, thereby freeing up those roles for others. It claims that as people become older and frailer, they should adapt to this change and remove themselves from important
this means their opportunities are very limited and any opportunities for them to socialise aren’t usually taken. Disengagement theory influences health and social care provisions to provide more opportunities for older people to socialise even though they may have ill physical health. Activity theory suggests that older people must try and keep them selves mentally and socially active in order to prevent disengagement from taking place. This theory influences health and social care provisions to provide opportunities and resources to make sure that older people remain physically and mentally active In order to prevent disengament theory and promote activity theory these service have been made available for older people when disengament theory poses a threat to an individuals ability to socialize: NHS befriending
To accomplish this, some individuals isolate themselves from social contact with activities such as reading, listening to music, or gardening” (Hillier & Barrow, 2015, p. 82). The Activity Theory assumes that mental and social activity is the essence of life for people of all ages” (Hillier & Barrow, 2015, p.81). Adapting a positive attitude is associated with high levels of activity, and better adjustment in life (Hillier & Barrow, 2015). Correspondingly, those who do not develop a clear role in society will be socially excluded. With an active lifestyle comes a “positive self-image, social integration, life satisfaction, and successful aging” (Hillier & Barrow, 2015, p. 81).
Disengagement and Activity Theory highlight opposite opinions on ageing. Disengagement Theory was introduced by Cumming & Henry (1961). This theory explains the impact of ageing over the course of one’s life. This theory explains the macro and micro level of ageing. Macro level is associated with society and the population.
K.J.Gergen argues that: “the traditional view of self-versus- society is deeply enigmatic and should be replaced by a conception of the self as it is immersed in relatedness. On this account, the individual’s lament of ‘not belonging’ is partially a by-product of traditional discourses themselves”. Furthermore, if the self is relationally constituted, does it make sense to speak of "self-estrangement" rather than "social isolation" (McGarty & Haslam, 2012). Costas and Fleming propose that even though the concept of self-estrangement has not weathered postmodern criticisms of essentialism and economic determinism in an effective way and the concept still has significance when Lacanian approach of the self is deployed. This can be drawn out as part of a larger deliberation on the concept of self between humanism and anti-humanism, structuralism and post-structuralism, or nature and nurture (Costas & Fleming,
Due to Anna not attending school regularly and missing part of her education this transition would not have happened impacting her later in life, unlike Vygotsky’s (1934) theory Jean piaget (1896-1980) based his theory on four stages of cognitive development Anna would have been in the formal operational stage, where at this point of transition teenagers consider to think about ethical, social and political views where hypothetical reasoning is needed (Cherry, 2017).Erik Erikson (1902-1994) theory of lifespan development would conclude anna’s transition from childhood to adulthood would be the stage of intimacy versus isolation, Erikson (1994) believed young grown-ups whose personalities are weak or shapeless will continue in shallow relationships and will practice a sense of segregation or loneliness consistent with Erikson’s (1994) theory anna had suffered isolation as a child and this continued on into annas lifespan where she entered into an abusive relationship this stage in Erikson’s (1994) theory of intimacy versus isolation, as also proved with this theory of stages anna would continue into the generativity versus stagnation which
Leisure Leisure is one area in which two of the theories within social gerontology are reflected. As mentioned in the summary of the data, some of the respondents carry their social activities from the past into old age. On the other hand, some of them seem to not be able to participate due to physical limitations. One interesting example of the first is Stefanía who has been seeking active social participation by going to the public swimming pool. As the continuity theory suggests, individuals are more inclined to bring their former ideals or personality with them into old age.
There are many significant developmental events during this time, such as changes in developing expertise in well-exercised areas, reproductive capacity, and family role transitions (Sigelman & Rider, 2014). According to Erik Erikson (cited in Sacco, 2013), the seventh stage of psychosocial development finds a mature adult dealing with the challenge of generativity versus stagnation. For most people in our society and unique cultures, this phase is between 30 and 70, whereas 40 to 60 as its core (Clay, 2003). Generativity is the need to guide the next generation, as well as working to keep the society safe and prosperous. This can be accomplished through either applying this drive to the individual’s own children or by feeling responsible for the society (Sacco, 2013).