e) Capital requirements: - there must be a huge capital is required to a new firm whether for manufacturing equipment, research and development or advertising expenditure. This all will leads to hold back new entrants to the market. 2. Bargaining power of suppliers Powerful supplier group possess one or more several of the following characteristics. a) Supplier concentration: - if the industry is dominated by few suppliers, this provides little choice for the buyer.
Many so called workforce strategic planning approaches are really a ‘dressed up’ form of workforce planning (i.e., simply a gap analysis including supply and demand considerations) and are lacking in a whole of workforce approach. 9. Despite the rhetoric, the link or alignment between business and workforce strategies for many organizations is weak or non-existent (i.e., lacks a focus on strengthening critical capabilities and core competencies). 10. The difference between ‘lag’ and ‘lead’ data is poorly understood resulting in HR analytics confusion.
One of the major issues sprawl has seemingly encouraged is an automobile dependant environment. The more sprawled out a city becomes, the more dependence we have on our vehicles to get us to work, school, home and places of leisure. This pushes us away from having an effective public transportation system because of its inaccessibility and poorly routed schedules that are inconvenient for many. This is why “smart growth” has progressively been promoted as an alternative method to sprawl because it focuses on public transportation and walking as main sources to building a better environment. However, Robert Bruegmann does not believe that “smart growth” is an effective alternative because heavily dense areas require longer commuting times.
Many companies respond to risks that have a low impact in supply chains and tend to overlook the high-impact and low-likelihood risks (Chopra & Sodhi, 2004). An understanding needs to be obtained by managers between the connection and variety of the supply chain risks to develop an effective risk response strategy. Hauser (2003) recommends that due to today’s complex environment, adjusting and understanding risk will result in an improvement in financial performance and competitive advantage for an organisation. Hise (1995) states that the objective of supply chains is profit maximisation by finding a balance between productivity (efficiency) and profitability (effectiveness) (Mentzer & Firman, 1994) to shift raw material and products between countries in a timely manner ( Bowersox & Calantone, 1998a) resulting in profitability of supply chains as a whole ( Manuj & Mentzer, 2008). Managers need to consider the different factors that create uncertainties and risks as a global supply chain have numerous delay points, greater uncertainties, and hence the need for greater coordination, communication and monitoring (Manuj & Mentzer,
Information security is claimed to be a management problem in some aspects. Many businesses and government managers drift away from information security because, they portray it to be a complex task that's out of their reach. Information security is not 100% based on just technology alone, but rather than management itself. Many managers believe that more technology is the solution to technology problems, but that's far from the truth. Management has certain abilities that technology can't do for them.
Limited human resources can include having a small staff, which makes it difficult to tackle every item on the company's to-do list. On the other hand, the company with a full staff that lacks the skills and training necessary to perform tasks can be a hindrance to an organization. If the company wants to launch its social media presence, but none of the staff has experience in social media, it can be a major weakness for the company. Either they'll have to hire a consultant, or risk an unsuccessful social media launch. A company that lacks human resources may have difficulty developing and maintaining a solid relationship with employees.
2.3.2 Sales Promotion and its Relationship with Consumer Brand Preference It has been acknowledged that consumer and trade promotions can be a very effective tool for generating short-term increases in sales, and many brand managers would rather use a promotion to produce immediate sales than invest in advertising to build the brand’s image over time (Belch & Belch, 2003). They, however, caution that overuse of sales promotion can be detrimental to a brand in several ways. The first is that a brand that is constantly promoted may lose perceived value. This is in line with Teunter (2002) and Jha-Dang’s (2004) assertion that the presence of a promotion will lead consumers to attribute lower quality to the brand owing to the fact that it is on
The disadvantages of the non for profit organizations However, one can conclude that non for profit firms face some disadvantages when compared to for-profit firms. They have a harder access to capital, the (lack) efficiency in their operations when compared to the for profit, and the speed with which they enter and grow expanding markets just to name a few. Agency theory in non for profit organizations Contrary to for-profit organizations, the non for profit organizations do not possess a variety of shareholders who can expect high returns from their investments and are financially motivated to control their agents. Because of this, finding the suitable principals
B. How firms can respond to the emergence of potentially disruptive technologies and innovations. The term, disruptive innovation was coined by Clayton Christensen.16 In his book, The innovator’s dilemma, 17 he describes two types of innovations: sustaining and disruptive innovation. According to him, sustaining innovations are those that improve product performance in ways that the mainstream or high-end customers would normally value, while disruptive innovations have new features that generally target the low end, less profitable part of the market, or even create a market for new customers. Initially, they deliver worse product performance than the already established technologies based on what mainstream customers value, but usually catch
BARGAINING POWER OF CUSTOMERS: 1. Buyers require special customizations: customers nowadays desire and want special customizations for the demanded product and would less likely switch to a supplier without the ability to offer special customizations. This positively affects marathon oil. 2. Low buyer price sensitivity: when buyer do not care about the price about the demanded product, the price of the product increases and they still will but the product.