Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a case of uncontrolled activation of proteins that are involved in the clotting process such as thrombin, fibrinolytic proteins, platelets, and coagulation factors. DIC occurs due to inflammation, trauma, infection, and shock. The presence of mucocutaneous bleeding is an evidence of DIC. Disseminated intravascular coagulation has acute and chronic phases. In acute phase, a patient will have severe symptoms while in chronic phase a patient may suffer from inflammation of blood vessels or adenocarcinoma.
DIC started by activating the coagulation factors at any stage in the pathway. First step in the pathway started by activating the thrombin, which then
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On the other hand, the plasmin flows in the plasma and dissolves all fibrin forms. The degradations of fibrin are labeled as follows: E, D, Y, X, and D-dimer. E, D, Y, and X come from fibrin polymers, monomers, or fibrinogen while D-dimer comes from the cross-linked form of fibrin. The polymer form of fibrin activates the platelets, which motivates the coagulation pathway and causes thrombocytopenia. In the meantime, protein S, C, and antithrombin are lost upon the…show more content…
Then, antibiotics, surgery, anti-inflammatory agents, or obstetric procedures may regulate hemostasis, mainly in chronic DIC. However, in acute phase of DIC, two categories of treatment are available as follows: treatments that slow the coagulation process and therapies that substitute the coagulation factors and the missing platelets. Heparin also can be used to stop the uncontrolled stimulation of the coagulation cascade due to the antithrombotic properties. Careful monitoring of heparin is required because the heparin can worsen the bleeding. Red blood cell administration, thawed frozen plasma, and platelets transfusion may be use based on the patient
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