visual metaphor) on a product package has a positive impact on consumer perceptions (Hagtvedt & Patrick, 2008). Similarly, non-probative visuals, those providing no direct evidence for or against a claim, influence consumers’ evaluation of those claims (Mantonakis et al., 2014). According to Mantonakis et al. (2014), visuals might affect perception due to its association with related thoughts and images, making the information about the verbal claim (i.e. brand frame) easier to process.
An experiment by Eliaz and Schotter (2010) showed people were willing to pay for information about a decision they were planning to make, despite knowing this information would not affect the decision. All this new information did was increase their confidence in original beliefs, reflecting real-life decision-making. The most robust explanation is based on Festinger’s Dissonance Theory. Essentially, Festinger’s (1962) theory states that the preferred state of mind is for our cognition, which involves attitudes, emotions, and beliefs, to be consistent. If this is not
Their results highlight the importance of simplifying decision processes and of informing and educating to help consumers in making decisions. Disinterest, the interpretation of defaults as recommendations, as well as too much choice and the complexity of choice problems are according to van Rooij and Teppa factors that clarify why consumers tend to act passively rather than actively in the act of choice
When the need is urgent, it becomes a motive. Perception involves choosing, organizing and assimilating information for a meaningful experience. Consumers go through three perceptual processes. These are: • selective attention – where marketers attract the buyer’s attention • selective distortion – where the buyer interpret the information to suit their beliefs • selective retention – where marketers try to retain information that supports their beliefs Beliefs and Attitudes surround a consumer’s view of a product and alsobuild the brand image, thereby affecting their buying behaviour. This triggers a marketer’s interest in them.
Despite the Marketers' best efforts; there might be little that can be done to dissuade such a belief if it's powerfully ingrained. Learned attitudes can be sensitively charged feelings that dictate behaviors which can even confuse the person exhibiting those attitudes. When marketers encounter consumers with learned -ve attitudes, they generally write off those groups as not worth the time and attempt to goal for market. Positive Learned Attitudes Consumers who have positive learned attitudes are routine customers permit for marketers. They tend to exhibit loyalty and purchase often as well as defend the product or service to others who may disapprove of it.
Brand awareness provides the anchor to which other associations can be linked. Recognition provides the brand with a sense of familiarity and people like the familiar. In the absence of motivation to engage in attribute evaluation, familiarity may be enough. Brand awareness can be a signal of substance. The first set in the buying process often is to select a group of brands to consider.
For the most part, brand image capacities to characterize the item for consumers and separate the association's putting forth from aggressive offerings. Meanings of brand image range from extremely wide and general to more particular, for example, those likening brand image with the thought that brands have identity like implications related with them (see Dobni and Zinkhan 1990 for a survey). Toll and Glick (1973) and Martineau (1958) offer meanings of brand image that appear to be adequately enveloping, yet sufficiently succinct, to delimit brand image in a helpful manner for promoting examination. Toll and Glick (1973) fight brand image is an outline idea that suggests consumers purchase brands for their physical characteristics and capacities and the implications joined with the brands. Martineau (1958) portrays store image as being made out of utilitarian qualities and mental characteristics.
When customer has to choose among alternatives that process considered as the concept of preference because customer choice depends on his or her desirability and satisfaction associated with that alternative choice this is the definition of brand preference in marketing (Oliver and Swan, 1989). According to Zajonc and Markus (1982, p. 128) preference is the not the choice which customer made at the time of purchase decision but it is a behavioural tendency which shows that an act of individual toward it regardless of what he or she thinks or says about the thing or item where he or she acted. There are four types of consumer preferences given by Tomer (1996) which are the actual preference, Meta- preferences, True preferences, and last is unrestrained preferences. The actual preference is the when consumer appreciates any goods and willing to use it to certain extent but meta-preference is the actual preference when consumer reflects the formal decision of using that products or services. True preference is consist of different unique set which shows what is actually best for the consumer.
Its moderating role may have some causes, for instance, major attention to familiar brands, connection with the advertising of familiar brand derived from previous experience, and positive acceptance of advertising (Tellis, 1997). Several notable articles published in advertising area have examined the moderate role of brand familiarity. By way of illustration, Biswas (1992) found that brand familiarity has a positive influence on purchase intention, especially when a highly familiar brand is exposed and implausible reference price is presented. While Kent and Allen (1994) study revealed that both familiar and non-familiar brands generated fewer memories of advertising statements, thus, brand familiarity moderated the relationship between competitive interference and consumer memory for advertising. Surprisingly, to the author’s knowledge, no previous studies have discussed the moderating effect of brand familiarity between green consumerism and skepticism toward green advertising.
Problem recognition is the perceived difference between an ideal and an actual state. It is important to understand this step to recognize what generates a decision to be initiated. An issue that is important to understand is that consumers may realize that there is a difference between their ideal and actual state, therefore, they may not be motivated to make a decision. To address this dilemma, it is important that consumers are able to desire a product that is attainable and affordable. A successful company should influence the consumer to perceive a problem for a product or service, even if this problem does not actually exist.