Essay On Distillation

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What is distillation?
“A separation technique in which two or more substances are separated into their components from their mixture (liquid or vapour mixture) by the means of heat removal or heat addition is called distillation1.”
In liquid mixture distillation, the mixture is heated and less boiling point liquid began to evaporate. Vapors of that liquid then condensed to get purified liquid. Purified liquid is then called condensate. Repetition of distillation on collected liquid is called double distillation, this can be done just to enhance the purity of collected liquid2. Plant in which someone performing distillation is called distillery, and apparatus is called still3.
This method is also used for the preparation
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There are five main types of distillation explained below:
Each technique has its own significance but simple and fractional distillation are more common techniques, use on industrial scales.

Simple Distillation: Those mixtures whose components have at least 70°C boiling point difference can be separated by simple distillation. In this type of distillation mixture is heated and highly volatile liquid began to evaporate then these vapors passed through a condenser to cool them down. This technique can also use for the purification of the mixtures contaminated with non-volatile species e.g. solids or oils. Also used for purification of contaminated water and homemade perfumes.

Fractional Distillation: Those mixtures whose components have boiling point difference of 25°C and cannot be separated by simple distillation, can be separated by fractional distillation. This process is done in a fractionating column (tray or packed). The more volatile component is collected at the top of column and less volatile component is collected at the bottom of column. This technique is use in purification of alcohol and gasoline fraction in petroleum refining industries. This is simple to use but comparatively expensive than any other type of

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