Place a clean funnel into the mouth of a 250ml volumetric flask. 9. Carefully pour the oxalic acid crystals into the funnel. 10. Use the wash bottle with deionised water to transfer all the oxalic acid crystals from the glass beaker to the funnel.
Place the 250ml beaker on top of the wire gauze. Arrange so that there will be a 10 cm distance between the wire gauze and the wick of the burner when the alcohol burner is placed underneath the clamp. Use a thermometer to measure and record the initial temperature of the water. Light the wick of the alcohol burner containing ethanol using a lighter or a match. Use a stopwatch to track the time of the combustion of ethanol.
This process of rising up, condensation, and revaporization eventually results in vapor comprising 100% of substance A. This process is then repeated at the boiling point of substance B. The efficiency of this process is reflected by the reflux ratio, which reveals how many condensate drops reenter the stillpot for every distillate drop
Aim The purpose of this experiment was to use fractional distillation technique to separate cyclohexane and toluene. Background Information Distillation is a technique which is used for separating two or more volatile products based on differences in their boiling points. Distillation can be used to separate a volatile solvent from a non-volatile product and separate a volatile product from non-volatile impurities. Simple distillation consists of a round-bottom flask, a distilling head, a condenser, an adapter and a receiver which are used to separate compounds where one is considerably more volatile than the other compound. This distillation is performed in one step.
Data Table 1. Comparing the temperature of each liquid every 30 seconds Time (sec) Temperature of the water (°C) Temperature of the isopropyl alcohol (°C) Temperature of the ethyl alcohol (°C) 30 34.6 43.1 37.0 60 45.3 63.8 55.1 90 54.8 80.2 74.3 120 64.0 80.5 76.8 150 72.4 80.5 76.8 180 79.7 80.5 76.7 210 86.8 80.4 76.6 240 93.4 80.3 76.4 270 97.7 80.2 76.4 300 98.5 80.2 76.3 330 98.8 80.2 76.2 360 98.0 N/A 76.2 390 98.0 N/A 76.1 420 97.9 N/A 76.1 450 98.2 N/A 76.1 480 97.9 N/A 76.1 510 97.7 N/A 76.1 540 97.6 N/A 76.1 570 97.5 N/A 76.1 600 97.5 N/A 76.2 Table 2. Boiling points of the three different liquids Liquid Boiling Point (°C) Water 98.9 Isopropyl Alcohol 80.6 Ethyl Alcohol 76.9 Table 3. Polarities of the three different liquids Liquid Polarity
Repeat the experiment. The cola drinks were titrated using the following method: Prepare the beverage in a 250ml volumetric flask. Use a funnel to facilitate the process. Place the beaker on a hot plate so that it boils and place a watch glass on top to prevent the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere getting dissolved in the cola. Once the cola starts to boil, continue to boil it for another 10 minutes so that the carbon dioxide is removed.
A spin vane was added and a water-jacked condenser was attached. Isopentyl nitrite (0.06ml, 0.045 mmol) was dissolved in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (0.50 ml) in a 3-ml conical vial and caped to prevent loss by evaporation. Running the reaction. The mixture in the 5-ml conical vial containing the tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and anthranilic acid was heated on an aluminum block to 140° C. Once the mixture started to boil the prepared mixture of isopentyl nitrite was added to the 5-ml conical vial through the top of the condenser using a pasture pipette. The solution continued to boil for 25 more minutes until a
Then percent yield was calculated to be 67.57%. The isolation of less product resulted from using less amount of acetanilide than 0.07g at the beginning of the experiment. In addition, the melting point of the product was measured to be 164.8-168.50c, which is in the range of the normal melting point of 4-bromoacentailide, 165-1690c. This confirmed the formation of 4-bromoacetanilide from the bromination of acetanilide. From the bromination of 0.05g aniline, 0.156g of the product was collected.
Procedure: With all materials needed, proceed to use the aluminum block to determine the mass and then record in a table. Then fill the graduated cylinder halfway with water and record the volume of the water precisely. Tip the cylinder gradually being cations as not to spill and slide the aluminum block into the graduated cylinder. Put the cylinder straight up and confirm the block is absolutely submerged. Afterwards record the volume.
(Nature.com, 2014). Through extensive testing it has been found that small alcohols, specifically ethanol can increase the fluidity and membrane permeability of the phospholipid bilayer (Patra et al, 2005). The aim of the experiment was to test what effect that ethanol solution would have on the membrane