The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster. Our
At a value of 7.1% and 3.2% respectively, the error that occurred during the first trial did not persist into the rest of the trials. However, excess water on the lighter attributed to the error across all three trials. The excess water on the lighter gave it a larger mass when measured using the triple beam balance. Due to this, the mass of butane collected was slightly inaccurate, causing errors in the calculation of the molar mass of
Metabolism produces more acids than bases. It produces acids (even in a balanced body), but the alkaline blood is able to neutralize them. Since relatively small amounts of metabolic bases are produced, the carbonic acid concentration in the blood can afford to be lower. Since car- bonic acid isn’t stable in aqueous (water)
The unknowns were correctly identified due to the clear presence of two plateaus in the experimental data. The hot plate was not turned on too high or too low to not obtain one of the three samples, and a sufficient number of values were taken in each part of the distillation before the mixture evaporated away to obtain approximately accurate data for boiling points. The ratio calculated for the volume of solvents in the mixture was .506/.488, where the composition of the mixture was 50.6% acetone, and 48.8% toluene. These two values did not add up to 100% because the GC also recorded some impurities,
This is due to the boiling points of the two compounds are too close for an effective simple distillation. A simple distillation only works when the boiling points of the two compounds are separated by at least 50 °C (CITATION). Meanwhile, the boiling points of the compounds of the mixtures are 82.3 °C for 2-pronanol and 117 °C for 1-butanol (National Center for Biotechnology Information). As well, while fractional distillation is more difficult due to the added fractionating column and insulation, it allows for better separation and condensation of the individual compounds.
In general, the more chemicals a battery has that can change into other chemicals, the longer it lasts, and this is partly what explains why alkaline batteries have a slight chemical advantage over their non-alkaline counterparts.’’ (education.com). Because of this, the alkaline batteries lasted longer than the non-alkaline batteries. The batteries chosen for this experiment are also alkaline batteries so it was already a good idea to use these types of batteries if they last longer than non-alkaline
It was difficult to find an IL that worked well extracting all the N-compounds. In general, it was observed that the nitrogen removal of the synthesized ILs was higher for indole and carbazole than for quinoline (Figure 3). The reason behind this behavior is that quinoline is a Lewis acid, while indole and carbazole are Brӧnsted acids. The imidazolium ILs containing halogen anions showed a good removal efficacy, while the change of anion from chloride IL 1 to dicyanamide IL 2 decreased the extraction efficiency of N-compounds. The presence of double imidazolium rings in the structure of the ILs (ILs 4-5) or aromatic derivatives (IL 7) led to the reduction of the removal properties.
The higher the compounds go up the more polar the substance is. (1) On the TLC that was done in the practical 1 two lines had roughly the same distance of 2.55-2.6cm. The reaction material was higher of about 2.9cm and the final product was lower (1.9cm). This means that the reaction materials had a higher polarity than the other 3. The final product had the lowest polarity.
This suggests that the intermolecular forces between molecules within an ionic compound are much stronger than the intermolecular forces between molecules within a covalent compound. The densities of the ionic compounds in table 1 are also higher than the densities in table 2. Due to ionic compounds having stronger intermolecular forces than covalent compounds, the volume of the ionic compound would be less than the volume of the covalent compound. Density=Mass/Volume, so a lower volume would result in a higher density. (Santosh Agray.
Reverse osmosis is the most frequently used membrane process for the desalination of seawater especially in the Mediterranean Sea region . Although thermal desalination has a greater ability to treat highly concentrated saline water with better properties than that of reverse osmosis, RO requires less energy expenditure than thermally based technologies. In fact, RO consumes about 0.4-7 kWh/m3 while thermal desalination needs 35 kWh/m3
Race Fuels Being Environmentally Friendly Most people think that all race cars are the same with their environmental impacts. An abundance of people think that all race fuels are the same they did not know that there were many different kinds of race fuels and they are all for different cars and are made from different materials. But they are wrong for the most part, yes some fuels are very bad for the environment, but their are some that are not very bad for the environment. The racing industry is a very polluting industry and should have to take steps to be more environmentally friendly.
Today some of the top manufactures are: Borden Chemicals and Plastics, Dow Chemical, Oxymar, and PPG Industries Inchttp://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+@rel+107-06-2. Japan, Europe and the United States alone manufacture about 18 billion kg of Ethylene dichloride springer link. Ethylene dichloride has large economic value based on the fact that its hydrogens can be removed easily by applying heat. This property allows it to be a practical choice in chemical synthesis as it minimizes cost and labour when manufacturing other chemicals.
This makes it easier for the electron to be released to react with hydrogen gas either in water or in hydrochloric acid. Magnesium reacts with oxygen resulting in a bright white flame and produced magnesium oxide. After the combustion was completed, magnesium oxide was placed into the beaker containing water and the pH level of the solution was neutral. It could produce a basic solution if the oxide layer of the magnesium ribbon was cleaned completely, to ensure that it does not hinder the reaction between magnesium and
Introduction The purpose of this lab was to compare simple distillations of two sets of liquids by graphing the boiling points. One set of simple distillation of two liquids were supposed to have a boiling point difference of bout 30C while the other set of simple distillations had a melting point difference of about 57C. Furthermore, by conducting this experiment, students would develop a better understand of distillation and gas chromatography. Furthermore, I hypothesized that cyclohexane and p-xylene distill better than cyclohexane and toluene since cyclohexane and p-xylene have a larger boiling point difference than cyclohexane and toluene. The boiling point of cyclohexane is 80.74C while the boiling point for p-xylene is 138.23C and the boiling point for toluene is 110.6, thus
Experimental Clay-catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol Cyclohexanol (10.0336 g, mmol) was added to a 50 mL round bottom flask containing five boiling chips, Montmorillonite K10 clay (1.0430 g) was then added to the cyclohexanol and the mixture was swirled together. The flask was then placed in a sand bath and attached to a simple distillation apparatus. The contents of the flask were then heated at approximately 150 °C to begin refluxing the cyclohexanol. The distillation flask was then loosely covered with aluminum foil and the hood sash was lowered in order to minimize airflow. As the reaction continued, the temperature was adjusted in order to maintain a consistent rate of distillation.